Voor 1960 het die Zoeloe reservate reeds 100% bestaan en was in unie dokumente vervat. Reeds vanaf 1854 was dit reeds as aparte gebiede vir etniese kulture ‘geskei” van mekaar – met eie leiers.
The Mfecane had a great influence on the history of South Africa. Large parts of the country in Natal, the Transvaal and Free State were largely depopulated because people fled in droves to safer areas such as the Transkei, the edge of the Kalahari, the Soutpansberg and the present day Lesotho. In consequence, these areas could not cope with the sudden influx and became overpopulated.
The British invasion in 1879 from Natal was poorly conceived. The British force was split and the Zulus fell on the main column at Isandlwana with devastating results.
The poor deployment and over confidence of the British meant that the Natal Colony was virtually undefended. A Zulu Impi did cross the Limpopo River and attacked a British outpost at Rorke’s Drift. However, despite the brave defence, this Impi had actually overstepped its orders. Chief Cetsawayo had wisely advised his warriors to fight a defensive war within the borders of Zululand only.
read more: lees meer
Isandlwana – Anglo-Zulu war (140 years)
They never had any intention of invading any of the surrounding European colonies but that did not stop the British from being deeply concerned at their security. The British had to respond by sending out an even larger regular army expedition at great expense that defeated the Zulus at the battle of Ulundi. The mighty Zulu war machine had finally been curbed but only at a huge cost to the British. Ironically it would do little to help bind the Boers to the British as without the threat of the Zulus, the Boers felt emboldened enough to reclaim their independence from the British.
After the defeat the British operated a policy of divide and rule to further ensure no resurrection of a centralised Zulu army. The former kingdom was divided into districts, each of which had its own chief. One of the chiefs was actually a white man (John Dunn) who had a dozen or more Zulu wives. Several of the others were leaders of anti-royalist factions. The royal house was completely unrecognised. The result was endemic civil war until Britain finally annexed Zululand in 1887.
The area was then administered as a separate colony until, in 1897, it was merged with Natal. The Natal government had long desired to have access to Zulu lands but this was also a period in a larger phase of an expansionist British policy in Southern Africa. Thanks to the discovery of huge quantities of gold in Transvaal, British administrators were seeking ways of pushing their control over the entire area. The formal annexation of Zululand in 1897 was in many ways a precursor to the events that would lead to the Boer War in just two years time and eventual Union in 1910.
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Britse anneksasies en gebiede in suider Afrika het niks te doen gehad met wyle Dr Verwoerd nie. Dit was in 1854 tydens die Shepstone beleid bekragtig, wat die reservate of britse kroongebiede begin het.
Heelwat later het die Britse koninklikes, die Unie van Suid-Arika besoek.
Weer eens – in 1947 het Verwoerd niks hiermee te doen gehad nie, aangesien hy eers na 1961 begin het om die reservate te omskep na Tuislande om elke etniese volk selfregerings en onafhanklikheid te laat verkry. Al hierdie gebiede het stemreg gehad, feitlik almal het ‘n vlag en nasionale volkslied gehad.
Tuislande was ook die hele Afrika vol en het nog minder met “apartheid” te doen gehad. En in Afrika was daar nog minder ‘n Dr Hendrik Verwoerd.
lees meer – read more:
Tuislande “so-called apartheid” – Homelands
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The Zulus Greet The King (1947)
INGONYAMA TRUSTLAND AND LEGISLATION
“Zulu kingdom” Ingonyama Trust
The Zulu names are all written into the legislation as well.
Ingonyama Trust was established in 1994 by the erstwhile KwaZulu Government in terms of the KwaZulu Ingonyama Trust Act, (Act No 3KZ of 1994) to hold all the land that was hitherto owned or belonged to the KwaZulu Government. The mandate of the Trust was to hold land for “the benefit, material welfare and social well-being of the members of the tribes and communities” living on the land.
When the democratic government came into existence initially in terms of the Interim Constitution of 1993 the original enabling Act creating Ingonyama Trust was reviewed comprehensively such that the final product was a new Act albeit called the Amendment Act. This Amendment Act had to meet all the constitutional requirements both in terms of the Interim Constitution and the final Constitution of 1996.
His Majesty the King is the sole Trustee of the land. The Amendment Act provides, among other things, for the establishment of Ingonyama Trust Board to administer the affairs of the Trust and the Trust land.
The enabling Act was amended in 1997 to create a Board separate from the Trust to administer the trust and its assets which include land. This amendment tried as far as possible to align itself with the practice under customary law. The King for all practical purposes is relieved of all hands on administration. This is left to Board members none of whom is a trustee.
Communally the land is owned by the clans as a collective in respect of each demarcated area. In turn each member of each clan is entitled through the procedures under customary law to have ownership of his/her allotment. The land which Ingonyama Trust owns, is the property envisaged in Section 25(1) of the constitution. Thus while not each and every member of the beneficial clans has a registered title deed in respect of his/her allotment, such ownership is protected by the law.
While Section 25(6) provides for the enactment of a legislation to strengthen land right ownership to address past historical racial inequalities, it is submitted that land beneficiaries of Ingonyama Trust land can have access to such protection even currently.
The Ingonyama Trust land is still the most economically accessible land in the province. However, due to population exponential growth strong measures are to be applied in land allocation by the Traditional Councils on the ground. For this to happen, the Ingonyama Trust Board needs to expedite policy formulation and cascade it to the Traditional Councils sooner than late.
The Trust mandate is not confined to land ownership only. It is entitled to do anything which a corporate body may do, subject to the enabling legislation.
King Zwelithini – Zulu king
The King is the head of the Zulu nation and the monarch of the province of KwaZulu – Natal. The Zulu people are spread all over the world and their combined estimate is in excess of twenty five million. These people trace their ancestry to Kwazulu-Natal where the old Zulu kingdom under the mighty and renowned King Shaka ka Senzangakhona once flourished. The King is the direct descendent of this Royal dynasty. The year 2016 marks forty five years of the King’s reign and two centuries of King Shaka’s death. This also makes him the longest serving king in the Zulu people’s history.
He has lived under different changing political and social systems. Yet he succeeded in preserving the Zulu identity, culture and language. He has in many instances brokered peace among his subjects as well as between his subjects and other nationalities. In his early days on the throne in 1973, he brokered a peaceful labour settlement between the employees of a brick manufacturing company, Corobrick in Durban and their employer.
The King controls at least thirty percent of the provincial land in KwaZulu-Natal where his people live. Through Ingonyama Trust of which he is the sole trustee he has ensured that his people despite historical land dispossession do not become landless. This is achieved through various policies and practices which Ingonyama Trust Board (ITB) of which he or his nominee is the chairman apply from time to time to protect the people especially those vulnerable from exploitation.. Ingonyama Trust is a statutory trust which own land on behalf of the Zulu nation. The land in question is that which remained in the hands of the state after successive dispossession.
For the welfare of the Zulu Royal family the King has registered a family trust under the name” the Zulu Royal Family Trust”. This speaks for itself. The trust will strive towards advancing and looking after the welfare of the Royal Family. While all these trusts and foundation are now registered with the Master of the High court and therefore lawful legal entities their creation and development is an unfolding process as the King seek wide representation of trustees serving on them. This again is another milestone for the King. The work is therefore about to begin.
King Goodwill Zwelithini has demanded that government gives a written assurance that land under his leadership will not be part of the proposed land expropriation process. Zwelithini was addressing thousands of AmaZulu who gathered at the Moses Mabhida Stadium for the annual Umkhosi weLembe celebration. Formerly known as Shaka Day in honour of AmaZulu founder King Shaka kaSenzangakhona.