‘Apartheid’ > 1854


Segregation was created in 1854 by the traditional leaders and Lord Shepstone (policy) in London.  The great media and other propaganda lies told against apartheid countermanded:   In 1988, a German book (The lie of apartheid and other true stories from Southern Africa) reported how benevolent the “White Giant of Africa’ actually had been under so-called apartheid.  After 1994 and the so-called democratic “rainbow nation”,  the same ethnic groups and even more, are still living either on Trustland or different CPA’s (Landclaims legislation).  It is not only South Africa, but the whole of Africa and other continents do have varioius ethnic groups of people and they all differ from each other.   In South Africa the ethnic groups and leaders blame the white minority people for their own segregation choices.

Image result for british crown lands map 1854 southern africa

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The ZAR (Transvaal) and Freestate (later RSA) were annexed by Britain in 1900, but guerrilla fighting continued. The Treaty of Vereeniging (1902) ended the war and made the independent countries a crown colony of the British Empire.  During this time, there were already reserve or british crownland in place. 

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Allegations are made by political leaders and supporters,  that the previous government (apartheid) (whites) has killed millions of blacks.    If it was the case, there would not have been so many blacks today.   They all immigrated from the north, not only in 1800 but since 1902.

On the contrary, blacks wiped out themselves at Mfecane wars (1810-35).   They still do it today and not only in South Africa.   Even in Africa, blacks killing each other and the necklace murder is also in full swing in Africa.  Then if they can not live in their own homeland, they just go over the border to the next country.

The numbers prove it, and it has grown even more with immigrants and illegals just walk over and expect everything for free, even the social grants, because there are open borders since 1994.

Nothing has been changed after 1994, only the wording of Homeland changed to Ingonyama Trustland, only for the Zulu people and Richtersveld CPA for the Khoi San peoples, and there are thousands of other separate CPA’s (landclaims and 8840 traditional leaders), by their own choices.

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Ethnicity

Before colonisation and so-called apartheid in South Africa, the concept of ethnicity was rooted in the ideas of bonds in kinship, biology and ancestry. Ethnicity has been associated with the belief that ethnic groups are extended kinship networks that serve as basic dividing lines within societies, embracing groups differentiated by colour, language, religion and race. In South Africa, ethnicity involved more visible local communities, built on face to face signal of dialect, kinship, status, religion, cultural practices, and on the force of understanding and fear produced by rural isolation.

Ethnicity refers to shared cultural practices, perspectives, and distinctions that set apart one group of people from another. The most common characteristics distinguishing various ethnic groups are ancestry, territorial possession, language, forms of dress, a sense of history and religion. These characteristics were the units of social, economic and political organisations and inter-communal relations. Ethnic differences are not inherited; they are learned. South Africa consists of different ethnic groups located in different rural homelands. They were peasants or self-providing groups and their economy was agriculture. Land was important to the reproduction of social and economic life.

During the colonial and apartheid periods, the Black population of South Africa was divided into major ethnic groups; namely Nguni people which consisted of: Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi, Sotho people which consisted of Northern Sotho (Bapedi), Southern Sotho (Basotho) and Tswana, Shangaan-Tsonga and Venda, as well as Coloured and Afrikaans. There were separate Bantustans for the Zulus, Xhosas, Sothos, Tswanas, Vendas, Pedis and Shangaans. In urban areas, Africans were housed in the urban townships on ethnic lines and received their schooling in ethnic schools. Indians, Coloureds and Africans were also allotted separate schools.

The largest ethnic group in South Africa is the Zulu and the majority of them live in KwaZulu Natal Province and Gauteng Province. The second largest is the Xhosa group; they are located in the Eastern Cape Province and Western Cape Province. South African ethnic groups are also found across South Africa’s boundaries in neighbouring countries. For example, Nguni-speaking Swazi people make up almost the entire population of Swaziland. At least 1.3 million Sesotho speakers live in Lesotho, and more than 1 million people in Botswana speak Tswana.  Tsonga and related languages speakers live in Mozambique, and Venda is also spoken by several thousand people in Southern Zimbabwe.

One of the main characteristics of ethnicity is language. In South Africa, there are more than ten languages and others are grouped as Nguni and Sotho languages. IsiZulu, isiXhosa, siSwati and isiNdebele are Nguni languages. Sepedi (Northern Sotho), Sesotho (Southern Sotho) and Setswana (Tswana) are Sotho-Tswana languages.  Venda and Tsonga are the other two official languages in South Africa. English and Afrikaans are also official languages spoken in South Africa.

The majority of the White population, about 60 percent is Afrikaans, with many of the remaining 40 percent being of British or European descent. The Coloured population has a mixed lineage, which often comprises the indigenous Khoisan people and White settlers. Most of the Coloured population live in the Northern and Western Cape Provinces, whilst the majority of the Indian population live in KwaZulu-Natal. The Afrikaner population is especially concentrated in the Gauteng and Free State Provinces.

https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/race-and-ethnicity-south-africa

 

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2:00  “with necklacing we will liberate our country”


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MALI OR CAMEROON
In July 2018 a horrifying video began to circulate on social media. It shows two women and two young children being led away at gunpoint by a group of Cameroonian soldiers. The captives are blindfolded, forced to the ground, and shot 22 times.


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Segregasie oftewel aparte gebiede is in 1854 geskep deur die tradisionele leiers en Lord Shepstone (beleid) in London.  Dit het net na die Mfecane oorloë plaasgevind, omrede swart etniese stamme nie met mekaar oor die weg kon kom nie – dit was duidelik hoekom daar so baie mense doodgemaak is.    Die groot media- en ander propaganda-leuens wat teen die sogenaamde apartheid vertel word, word as onwaar beskou en beslis is alles wat verkondig is, nie die waarheid nie.

In 1988 het ‘n Duitse boek (The lie of apartheid and other true stories from Southern Africa) berig hoe welwillend die ‘White Giant of Africa’ eintlik onder die sogenaamde apartheid was.

Na 1994 het die sogenaamde demokratiese ‘reënboognasie’ ontstaan en leef dieselfde etniese groepe en nog meer, steeds op Trustland of op verskillende kommunale gebiede (CPA’s),  (onder andere wetgewing oor grondeise). Dit is nie net Suid-Afrika nie, maar ook die hele Afrika en ander kontinente. Daar is verskillende etniese groepe mense, en hulle verskil etnies, toaal van mekaar.

In Suid-Afrika blameer meestal etniese swart en bruin groepe en leiers die wit minderheidsbevolking vir hul eie segregasie-keuses.   Die bekendste is waarskynlik Ingonyama trustgebied wat slegs vir Zoeloes is en daar is 6 gebiede vir Khoi San en bruin mense in 2007 deur Thabo Mbeki gegee, met byvoordele.  Richtersveld is een daarvan.

Daar is egter niks verkeerd hiermee nie, inteendeel daar was ook niks foutief aan ‘n Tuislandontwikkeling wat volle onafhanklikheid sou verkry het nie.   So ‘n gebied is in lyn met internasionale reg waar etniese volke volwaardige onafhankikheid kan verkry – dis presies waarmee Dr Verwoerd besig was.   Daar is van die Tuislande wat uitstekend floreer het.  Grensnywerhede is oral geskep om werksgeleenthede en opleiding te bevorder.

Nes vandag, was daar ook heelwat korrupsie aan die tuislandregerings en as korrupsie op nasionale/provinsiale en munisipale vlakke vergelyk gaan word, sal gesien word dat die hoeveelheid vandag ter sprake, nie ‘n druppel in die emmer van voor 1994 is nie.    Hierdie gebiede sou 100% oor hul eie grondgebiede regeer het soos Botswana.  Vandag sit ons met 8840 tradisionele leiers en dis net so min in vergelyking met wat ons voor 1994 gehad het.  Ons as belastingbetalers onderhou maandeliks hierdie tradisionele leiers, terwyl hulle niks met mekaar of met ons in gemeen het nie.

Voor “kolonisasie en die sogenaamde apartheid” in Suid-Afrika, was die begrip etnisiteit gewortel in die idees van verbande in verwantskap, biologie en herkoms. Etnisiteit word geassosieer met die oortuiging dat etniese groepe uitgebreide verwantskapnetwerke is wat as basiese skeidingslyne binne samelewings dien, wat groepe omhels wat deur kleur, taal, godsdiens en ras onderskei word.

Beweringe word gemaak dat die vorige regering (apartheid) (blankes) miljoene swartes uitvermoor het en die aparte state geskep het.   Dis onwaar en op leuens gebou.

Aparte gebiede:   In 1961 was daar reeds reservate en elke stam/volk het apart gebly.   Stemreg was vir elkeen in hul eie gebiede, niemand het hul stemreg weggeneem nie.  Elkeen het hul eie leiers gekies, gebiede het vlag en volkslied gehad en selfs 4 het onafhanklikheid geniet, een het ‘n eie geldstelsel gehad.

Indien dit wel so was dat ons hulle kwansuis uitvermoor het, dan sou daar nie soveel swartes vandag gewees het nie. Inteendeel het swartes mekaar uitgewis by Mfecane (1800-1835).   En hulle het dit nog nooit afgeleer om mekaar te vermoor nie, hulle doen dit steeds.

Indien die getal wat verskaf word in 2019 van 500000 die waarheid is – wie vermoor wie?   Selfs in Afrika maak swartes mekaar dood en is die nekbandmoord ook in volle swang in Afrika.  Dus, is dit eenvoudig nie waar nie, die getalle bewys dit , en dit het selfs meer geword met invoer van immigrante en onwettiges wat alles gratis soek, selfs die toelaes, omdat daar oop grense is.   Brittanje het ook sedert 1902-1960 meer as 400000 immigrante ingevoer uit Afrika en China.

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Almal dink ons, of Verwoerd het apartheid begin, verkeerd, dit was die Britse wat dit alreeds voor 1900 begin het, saam tradisionele leiers wat na die Mfecane oorloe nie kon saambly in een area. Dit was lord shepstone wat die beleid London toe geneem het in 1854, daar was ook ander Lords betrokke.

Die gebiede is of reservate/lokasies genoem en in heelwat gebiede was dit Britse kroongebiede genoem.   Dit was in 1910 in Unie dokumente oorgedra as reservate of kroongebiede.

In 1961 was daar steeds reservate en kroongebiede onder Britse beheer. Selfs die Engelse skole is deur die Engelse gedoen saam met verskillende kerke, vir hierdie swart bevolkingsgroepe. Dit het tot ongeveer 1954 geduur wat die swart skole onder ons afdak ingegooi is om dit verder te beheer.

Ons het in 1961 Republiek geword. In hierdie Engelse skole, was daar nie Afrikaans te bespeur nie, baie van hierdie “missioneries” was Engelse kerk organisasies, uit baie dele van die wereld.

Ons het in ons gebiede vir jare op Afrikaans as eerste taal gefokus. En oornag was hierdie massas op ons wat eise gestel het, veral oor Engels. Daarom al die skool opstande, wat teen Afrikaans was.

Hoekom het hierdie massas nie hul eie onderwysers gehad nie, hulle kon dit ook onder Britse beheer gedoen het, maar hulle het nie.

Alles moes juis afgebrand word. Die vraag wat baie by my opkom, wat het die Engelse hierdie spul geleer? Brand en plunder, teel en steel soos ons vandag ken. Na 25 jaar gaan dit niks beter nie, inteendeel.

Meeste van ons kolleges en opleidingsentra was grotendeels Afrikaans.

Gooi enige kind in ‘n omgewing soos in Frankryk of China waar net Frans of Chinees is en kyk wat gebeur? Die Engels het hierdie moedswillig en kwaadwillig op ons afgegooi.

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Refer to a webpage:

https://suidafrikageskiedenis.blogspot.com/2015/05/truth-about-south-africa.html

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 Below are some of the facts referencing 1988 (unless otherwise indicated):

  • In 1972, SA blacks owned 360,000 vehicles. (More than all the black African states together)
    The monthly income of blacks per capita in 1988 was R352 per month in South Africa but in Malawi and Mozambique was less than R20 per month.
  • In 1988 black people could undergo a complicated heart valve surgery for just more than $ 1 while black Americans had to pay $ 15,000. In a Pretoria hospital between 2,000 and 3,000 of these surgeries were done per year.
  • In 1970, black workers earned R1,751 million, or 25.5% of the total wage fees in SA and increased to R17,238 million in 1984 (1,000% growth) and 32.3% of total wages in SA.
  • In the 1986/1987 financial year, whites paid R9,000 million and blacks R171 million tax. Indians paid R257 million and coloreds paid R315 million on tax.
  • Between 1962 and 1972 the UN paid $ 298 million to underdeveloped countries compared to South Africa that spent $ 558 million on the development of its black areas.
  • The budget amount for black education increases every year from 1970 to almost 30% more than any other government department.
  • From 1955 to 1984 the number of black scholars increased from 35,000 to 1,096,000. In 1988 71% of the adult black population could read and write versus 47% in Kenya, 38% in Egypt and 34% in Nigeria. On average during the year 15 new classrooms per working day were built for black scholars.
  • In 1985 there were 42,000 black students enrolled at SA universities.
  • There were 5 black universities and 28 higher education institutions funded by the government.
  • Soweto with its population of 1.2 million had 5 modern stadiums versus Pretoria with its 600,000 whites who had three. Soweto had 365 schools versus Pretoria 229. In Soweto in 1978, there were 115 football fields, three rugby fields, 4 athletic tracks, 11 cricket fields, two golf courses, 47 tennis courts, 7 swimming pools, 5 bowling halls, 81 basketball fields, 39 children playgrounds and countless community halls, cinemas and clubhouses.
  • In Soweto in 1978, there were 300 churches, 365 schools, 2 technicons, 8 clinics, 63 kindergartens, 11 post offices and its own fruit and vegetable market.
  • The white government built a huge hospital Baragwanath 3,000 beds in Soweto. One of the largest and most modern hospitals in the world.
    Its 23 operating theaters were equipped with the best equipment money can buy.
    Here blacks were treated at a nominal cost of R2 for an unlimited period.
    In 1982, no fewer than 898 heart surgeries were done here.
    Next to the Baragwantha Hospital is the St. John-eye clinic, famous for the treatment of glaucoma, previous fix retinas, traumatic eye injuries and rare tropical diseases.
  • There were over 2,300 registered firms, 1,000 taxi operators and 50,000 car owners in Soweto.
  • Dr. Kenneth Walker, a Canadian physician, visited Soweto and made the following observations:
    He saw several houses worth more than R100 000 with various BMW’s at the door.
    Only 2% of homes are shacks with neat buildings with lawns. If he had to choose between the decaying apartments in New York, Detroit or Chicago than he would rather stay in Soweto.
    He’d rather be very ill in Soweto as in some Canadian cities.
    He says the city has more schools, churches, cars, taxis, and sports fields than any other independent African states.
  • In 1978 the South African government built a highly modern hospital MEDUNSA on the border of the independent state of Bophuthatswana at a cost of R70 million on 35 hectares. In this city there were living and sleeping facilities for male and female students.
    Black doctors, dentists, veterinarians and para-medical staff were trained. It is the only specialized university of its kind in Africa and one of the few in the world financed by white taxpayers exclusively to benefit blacks. Almost all students who mainly came from the national homelands costs were taken care of by the government.
  • The practical training took place in the nearby Garankuwa Hospital farm where the whole range of human ailments is covered.
    Garankuwa had the facilities for kidney transplants, isotopes units with specialized laboratories where 200 doctors were trained practically every year.
  • South Africa provided training for the airline personnel of Swaziland, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zaire and the Comores.
  • In 1979, when the train traffic to the Malawian capital Lilongwe was interrupted by rebels, SA sent transport aircrafts with fuel drums to keep their economy going.
  • In 1986, 80,000 black businessmen from Africa visited Cape Town to finalize business deals.
  • South Africa provided the grain needs of its neighbouring countries and wider. In 1980, Zambia received 250 000 tons of maize, Mozambique 150,000 tons maize and 50 000 tons of wheat, Kenya 128,000 tons maize and Zimbabwe 100 000 tons. Other countries that also received South African grain were Angola, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Mauritius, Tanzania and Zaire.
  • At least 12 countries of Africa, according to the ‘Argus African News Service’ were so dependent on SA grain that a total ban on imports and exports would have destroyed them economically.
  • About half of Lesotho’s male population worked in South Africa, about 146,000 in 1983, and earned R280,6 million which was about half of Lesotho’s treasury.
  • In the 1982/83 financial year SA budgeted R434 million for assistance to the independent neighbouring states.
  • SA produced more electrical energy than Italy, as much crude steel as France, more wheat than Canada, more wool than the US, more wine than Greece and more fish than Great Britain.
  • South African trains ran on more rail lines than in West Germany, carried more passengers than Switzerland, have better punctuality record than Austria and exported car parts to 100 countries.
  • SA mines bore down to the depth of 3,480 meters and holds the record for the deepest vertical shaft at 2,498m deep into the hardest rock in the world.

 

They were accused by the world that they were a police state:
In SA 1.4 officers for every 1,000 people while the world is as follows: UK 2.2, Israel 3.5, New York 4.3, and Moscow 10 per 1000. In South Africa there were 16,292 white policemen versus 19 177 non-white.

They were accused of killing their political offenders:
In 1979-1980 there were no deaths in SA prisons. In the previous 10 years 37 died versus 274 in the same period in Wales and England.

They were accused that they payed starvation wages:
In 1974, the average monthly income of black workers in South Africa were $ 127 versus the $ 140 in the US, the richest country in the world.

They were accused that they locked up thousands of political prisoners:
In 1983, 127 such prisoners are confined in SA and 11 whose movements were limited. A further 32 were under house arrest.

The very country that brought so much to the region was was stolen. There is no denying that he West did not know this… WHY THEN DID THEY DO IT?

Think again before you call yourself a loyal supporter of the devastating abomination called New SA or Rainbow Nation.

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HOMELANDS

LIE NUMBER ONE:

There is a common belief that the Natives Land Act of 1913 shoved blacks on reserves (‘7% of the land’) and ‘prohibited them from buying land in white areas’. That ‘whites forcibly removed blacks to these reserves and that these reserves were on the worst land in the country with no mineral riches and that whites kept all the best land and minerals for themselves’. Now if I was a black man, I would probably also want to believe that myth, because it would ensure me eternal victimhood status and compensation for generations to come.

TRUTH: 

Unfortunately, it is a blatant lie and can be attributed to the lack of reading ability or legal comprehension of the journalists and historians of our time.
First of all the biggest Platinum reserves in the world runs through the former Black homeland of Bophuthatswana (North West province). The former Nationalist government had no problem allocating this area to the Tswana tribes for self rule – although they already had a massive country called Botswana given to them by the British. It was originally part of South Africa, called Bechuanaland. Blacks further got another two massive countries from the British called Lesotho and Swaziland. There goes their 7%.Bophuthatswana “homeland”Zulu people – Ingonyama Trustland

LIE NUMBER TWO:

‘Black homelands were on the worst land in South Africa’.

THE TRUTH: 

When one compares the rainfall map of South Africa and anybody with elementary knowledge of South Africa will tell you that the largest part of South Africa is called the Karoo. It is a semi dessert comparable to Arizona or Nevada in the USA. Blacks never even entered this area let alone settled it.

Whites made it blossom and created successful sheep farms producing meat of world quality. Black “settlements” are found on the north and east coast of South Africa. The East Coast has a sub tropical climate and the north a prairie-like climate with summer rainfall and thunder storms.

An exception to this is the Western Cape with a Mediterranean climate and winter rainfall. The northern and eastern part of South Africa with its beautiful green grasslands and fertile soil is where the blacks eventually coalesced and this is the land they chose for themselves. Their eventual homelands were found on the land they inhabited out of their own free will. The Afrikaners even have a song praising the greenness of Natal, called “ Groen is die land van Natal” ( Green is the land of Natal). It was perfect grazing area for the cattle herding blacks.

LIE NUMBER THREE: 

‘Blacks are indigenous to South Africa and first settled it’.

THE TRUTH:

Today Blacks in South Africa often tell Afrikaners and other minorities such as the Coloureds, Indians, Chinese or Jews to’ adapt to their misrule and corruption or “Go Home”…implying that we, who have been born here, who hold legal citizenship through successive birthrights; should emigrate to Europe, Malaysia, India or Israel. That the only ones who have a legal claim to South Africa, all of it, are the blacks. Blacks believe that they are ‘ indigenous to South Africa ‘ – but they are not: it was proven by DNA research.

We are ALL settlers in South Africa. All South Africans are settlers, regardless of their skin colour, and their DNA carries the proof. So says Dr Wilmot James, head of the African Genome Project, a distinguished academic, sociologist and, more recently, honorary professor of human genetics at the University of Cape Town.

LIE NUMBER FOUR: 

Whites created black reserves and homelands.

THE TRUTH:

Blacks created the homelands themselves, thanks to Shaka Zulu.  (and the British Empire) (Lord Shepstone)

The common belief is that the ‘black tribes at the time were all living peacefully and in the spirit of ‘Ubuntu’ with each other in a virtual liberal paradise’. Nothing could be further from the truth.

Shaka-Zulu was a genocidal maniac who wiped out some 2-million black people in the Defecane. The Zulu tyrant Shaka, at the time was committing genocide against other tribes. Wiping out an estimated 2 million people in what is now known as the Defecane (great scattering).

The Swazis and the Ndebeles fled back north in the direction of central Africa where they migrated from. The Sotho’s fled into the mountains of what is today, Lesotho. The rest of the smaller tribes huddled together trying to find strength in coalescing. That is the history of black South Africans that blacks prefer to ignore… that blacks drove other blacks of their land, not whites.

It is into this Maelstrom of black chaos that the Boers trekked in 1838. As far as they went they found large open sections of country uninhabited by anyone. Black tribes fleeing Shaka’s carnage grouped themselves into areas finding protection in concentrated numbers.

This is how Sir Theophilus Shepstone later found the remnants of black refugees huddled together on self-created reserves. He just demarcated it in order to protect them from each other. The creators of the Bantustans were not the Boers or the Whites, it was a black man called Shaka.

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(farmitracker reports)

How many people were killed during the so-called apartheid period South Africa?   The Truth and Reconciliation Commission by Anglican churchman Desmond Tutu released its own researched statistics of the 1948-1994 political murders in South Africa.

21,000 people were killed in political violence during the 46 years leading up to the elections in April 1994:

14,000 between 1990 and 1994:

– of the latter group, 8,580 black South Africans were killed by other black South Africans. The majority of  those murdered black South Africans were Zulus: members of Inkatha, which had opposed the violent terrorist campaign by the ANC-regime.

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The TRC also found that 4,902 people of all races were killed by ‘unknown forces’ but ‘that is generally assumed that these killings were black-on-black, politically motivated murders. In other words, it is totally untrue as claimed by ANC-propaganda, that ‘millions of blacks were killed by the apartheid regime’.

 

16 gedagtes oor “‘Apartheid’ > 1854”

  1. […] Allegations are made by political leaders and supporters,  that the previous government (apartheid) (whites) has killed millions of blacks.    If it was the case, there would not have been so many blacks today.   They all immigrated from the north, not only in 1800 but since 1902.   READ MORE: ‘Apartheid’ > 1854 […]

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  2. […] The Transvaal was annexed by Britain in 1900, but guerrilla fighting continued. The Treaty of Vereeniging (1902) ended the war and made the Transvaal (as well as the Orange Free State) a crown colony of the British Empire.  During this time, there were already reserve or british crownland in place.   Segregation was created in 1854 by the traditional leaders and Lord Shepstone (policy) in London.  The great media and other propaganda lies told against apartheid countermanded:   In 1988, a German book (The lie of apartheid and other true stories from Southern Africa) reported how benevolent the “White Giant of Africa’ actually had been under apartheid. ‘Apartheid’ > 1854 […]

    Like

  3. Hoe min mense erken vandag hoeveel die blanke regering onder APARTHEID vir die swartes gedoen het. Dit was die vyande van die Afrikaners in SA wat gedurig die swart volke opgesweep het met vals beloftes. Wel vandag het die meerderheid swartes in SA wat hulle wou gehad het. Dit word elke jaar erger en in die nabye jare gaan niemand in SA meer kos hê om te eet of water hê om te drink nie. Die grootste skande is dat die meerderheid van die Engelssprekende bevolking in SA steeds hulleself as verhewe beskou en al die jare die 48/52 % skeiding in SA aangemoedig het. Vandag is dit egter te laat om SA te red en die totale bevolking gaan lei onder hierdie “haat” teenoor die Afrikaanssprekendes.

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  4. […] Segregation was created in 1854 by the traditional leaders and Lord Shepstone (policy) in London.  The great media and other propaganda lies told against apartheid countermanded:   In 1988, a German book (The lie of apartheid and other true stories from Southern Africa) reported how benevolent the “White Giant of Africa’ actually had been under so-called apartheid.  ‘Apartheid’ > 1854 […]

    Like

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