Separate areas of British empire

 

Theophilus Shepstone was verantwoordelik vir heelwat aangeleenthede nadat sy voorgeslagte hier geland het, veral vir die afbakening van die reservate vir swartes, vir die instelling van die hutbelasting (1849) en vir die heerskappy deur leiers wat aan homself lojaal was.  Hy was diep betrokke by die onafhanklike ZAR en Vrystaat wat geannekseer is,  sowel die Anglo-Zoeloe oorlog en veldslae asook ABO.   Hy was van mening dat swartes afsonderlik van die blanke setlaars moes regeer en dat Afrika-grondbesitstelsels in die reservate moes onderhou word.  Dis ook sy beleid wat in 1854 aanvaar en uitgevoer is.

Zulu War

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Daar was reeds heelwat Tuislande in Afrika gevestig – Homelands of Africa
Tuislande – so-called apartheid – Homelands

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Met Kodesa 1993 het dit ook duidelik geword dat die Ingonyama Trustgebied (ou Zoeloe reservate) en ander, sowel ander grondeise na 1994, bekend as CPA, oor die algemeen slegs kommunale gebiede onder die ANC se Trust en CPA wetgewing is en het hulle basies minder regte as voor 1994.   Die vraag is, wie besit wetlik hierdie gebiede?

Die aangeleenthede en wetgewings word steeds volgens 1996 Grondwet, Hansards en witskrifte apart hanteer kom voor as minderwaardig en ook rassisties.   

Val die CPA en Trustgebiede onder die Republiek van Suid-Afrika, want net diegene wat dit opeis, het kommunale reg daartoe, tot watter land hoort al hierdie Trust en CPA gebiede met al die duisende tradisionele leiers?   Dieselfde geld vir al die Kroongebiede, wat eens aan Khoi san en Griekwas behoort het, wat ook slegs kommunale regte het.   Alle mynregte word hierby uitgesluit.  Minerale gaan meestal landuit.

Slegs hulle wat in die Trust of CPA woon het kommunale toegang daartoe, niemand anders.   

Volgens die wetgewings, mag die grondgebiede op ‘n huurbasis bekom word as verhurings. 

Dit kom basies 100% neer op dieselfde beleid wat wyle Dr Verwoerd wou uitvoer en het daar algemene verkiesings plaasgevind waar swartes hul eie keuses kon uitoefen, met ‘n groot verskil.   

Dr Verwoerd het erkenning gegee aan elke volke afsonderlik, wat ook ‘n internasionale reg bied vir elke volk om hulself onafhanklik op elke gebied te regeer, nuwe lande wou maak van al die reservate, soos wat Botswana of Namibië of Suid-Soedan is.  As dit lank aangehou het, sou al die Kroongebiede ook gevolg het vir volle onafhanklikheid.   Niemand verbied enige volk om handels ooreenkomste met buurstate aan te gaan.

Daar word daagliks eise ingesit deur Khoi san en Swartes, maar wie se grond is dit werklik met so min menseregte op?

Tuislande en Trustgebiede in Suid-Afrika

Traditional leaders South Africa: 8840
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Menseregte

Elke volk het regte, maar duidelik word ons Boere, wat eens onafhanklike repubieke gehad het, se regte nie erken nie.  Waarom nie, waarom word slegs die reservate en kroongebiede aan sekeres geskenk, met heelwat finansiële steun asook ander steun soos saad, trekkers, diere, ens.

Bestudeer die 1996 grondwet oor tradisionele leiers … Hoofstuk 12
Handves van menseregte – Hoofstuk oor gewone reg of gemenereg
https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/SAConstitution-web-afr.pdf


Bill of Rights

Read the 1996 constitution about traditional leaders, Chapter 12 and Bill of Rights, Customary law
https://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/saconstitution-web-eng.pdf

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Shepstone 

In 1854, Natal’s Government Secretary for Native Affairs, Theophilus Shepstone, renewed a proposal that he be permitted to lead half of the colony’s African population to an area south of its border, where he would rule as ‘paramount’, loyal to, but independent of, the British Crown.

(Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository (PAR), SNA 1/7/2, Memorandum of Mr. Shepstone’s Proposal to take with him a Portion of the Natives, to the Country South of this District, 23 January 1854 (Shepstone Removal Memorandum).

His fame rests on the elaboration of the essential institutions of indirect rule. These constituted rule through chiefs and customary law, the creation of ‘native reserves’ and a system of taxation based on the number of ‘huts’ in a homestead.  The system was hierarchically organised, with African subjects at the base of a pyramid in which power flowed from the Governor, understood as ‘Supreme Chief’, through Shepstone as his agent, to white magistrates who supervised African chiefs and finally to heads of homesteads.’

https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4133839.pdf?casa_token=XJYm0o3-2VgAAAAA:cFBPlmMRRfJb9ExaxSSRxXid-2ggW9TPVK7m0Vzi6tZ3xCUUo3gDeTO2xYtpSdhdf84aeNx0XpMTpG9iey9zS8B6wFO4ETTTs1lfzsc4unZ8VhOJ_to

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ORDERS FROM WHOM?

Shepstone returned to South Africa with his commission from Carnarvon to  annex the Boer Republic, ZAR. He assembled a staff of twelve, which included a representative of the Standard Bank, and together with twenty-five mounted police he eventually rode into Pretoria.   He immediately declared the purpose of his visit to President Burgers, that he had come to promulgate Britain’s annexation of the ZAR.

http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/hist/v53n1/06.pdf

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“MISSION SCHOOLS” FORM PART OF MOST BLACKS/ KHOI SAN PEOPLES

Shepstone’s family immigrated in 1820 to Cape Colony, and he was educated in his father’s mission school. At an early age Shepstone acquired great proficiency in the native dialects and culture and learned Xhosa. He served on the staff of Benjamin D’Urban, governor of Cape Colony, during the Cape Frontier War of 1834–35 against the Xhosa and was appointed British resident in a Xhosa group in Kaffraria (now in South Africa) in 1839.

In 1845 he moved to Natal, where he first served as a diplomatic agent (1845–53) and later as secretary for native affairs (1853–75). He was responsible for delineating reserves for Africans, for introducing the hut tax (1849), and for ruling through chiefs loyal to himself. He believed that Africans should be governed separately from the white settlers and that African land-tenure systems should be maintained in the reserves (which became the basic approach in South Africa during the apartheid era of the 20th century), but he provoked opposition from white settlers who coveted further African land.

In 1876 the British colonial secretary, Lord Carnarvon, consulted with Shepstone as to how best to bring about a federation of the Southern African colonies.

It was in working toward that goal that in April 1877 Shepstone annexed the SAR to Great Britain as the crown colony of the Transvaal. The annexation and Shepstone’s subsequent role as administrator in the Transvaal (1877–79) have given rise to considerable controversy. Critics insist that Shepstone was a crafty, secretive “South African Talleyrand” whose “soaring ambition” led him to employ deceit and intimidation with the Transvaalers when he took over their land and that his high-handed, autocratic rule contributed much to the successful rebellion of the Boers (1880–81).

After the rebellion, relations between the Boers and the British were poisoned for generations. Also during this time, Shepstone fomented war against Cetshwayo’s Zulu and, together with the high commissioner of Cape Colony, Sir Bartle Frere, was largely responsible for the British ultimatum to the Zulu in December 1878 and the resulting war in 1879.

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Theophilus-Shepstone

 

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Shepstone se familie het reeds in 1820 na die Kaapkolonie geëmigreer, waar hy opgeleiding ontvang het in die sendingskool van sy vader. Op ‘n vroeë ouderdom het Shepstone vaardigheid in die inheemse dialekte en kultuur verwerf en Xhosa geleer.

Hy dien in die staf van Benjamin D’Urban, goewerneur van Kaapkolonie, tydens die Kaapse Grensoorlog van 1834–35 teen die Xhosa en word in 1839 aangestel as Britse inwoner in ‘n Xhosa-groep in Kaffraria (deel van SA).

In 1845 verhuis hy na Natal, waar hy eers as diplomatieke agent (1845–53) dien en later as sekretaris vir naturellesake (1853–75).

Dit was die strewe na die doel dat Shepstone in April 1877 die SAR aan Groot-Brittanje geheg het as die kroonkolonie van Transvaal.

Die anneksasie en die daaropvolgende rol van Shepstone as administrateur in Transvaal (1877–79) het aanleiding gegee tot aansienlike kontroversie. Kritici dring daarop aan dat Shepstone ‘n listige, geheimsinnige ‘Suid-Afrikaanse Talleyrand’ was waarvan die ‘stygende ambisie’ daartoe gelei het dat hy bedrog en intimidasie by die Transvaalers gebruik het toe hy hul land oorneem en dat sy hoëhandige, outokratiese bewind baie bygedra het tot die suksesvolle opstand van die Boere (1880–81).

Na die rebellie is die betrekkinge tussen die Boere en die Britte geslagte lank vergiftig. Gedurende hierdie tyd het Shepstone oorlog gevoer teen Cetshwayo se Zoeloe en was hy saam met die hoë kommissaris van Kaapkolonie, Sir Bartle Frere, grootliks verantwoordelik vir die Britse ultimatum aan die Zoeloe in Desember 1878 en die gevolglike oorlog in 1879.



RELATED …

Trustgebiede – Tuislande – Reservate

Indigenous land (old homelands) Trustland CPA  landclaims

Shepstone  – Natal, roots of segregation

3 gedagtes oor “Separate areas of British empire”

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