Slegs 22% van grond in Suid-Afrika is geskik vir landbou-doeleindes terwyl net 12% vir landbougewasse aangewend kan word. Heelwat provinsies en gebiede in Suid-Afrika is semi-woestyn andersinds is daar groot gedeeltes staatsbeheerde Sanpark wildsparke, waar daar nie landbou produksie plaasvind nie, terwyl ander gebiede te droog is om landbou volhoubaar te maak. Daar is meer as 7.5 miljoen swartes wat reeds privaat eiendom besit plus al die “immigrant state rondom stede”. Minerale aanwysings op verskeie kaarte baie groter geheelbeeld en voeg dit saam met staatsbosse en wildsparke, is stellings nie waar dat blankes die meeste grond kan besit nie.
LANDCLAIMS – WHAT HAPPENED IF AND WHEN IT WAS HANDED OVER
A book was written regarding farmlands that were failed:
Dr Du Toit – Land Scandal – only few farms mentioned
Government conceded that more than 90% of farms that the State had transferred to black owners had failed. Although the South African government has already spent more than R45 billion on land reform, only 6,3% of land procured by the State has been converted to private ownership.
Grond eienaars: ANC regeringsplase
South African Parliament 2015
For the record – the following were mentioned in Mr Zuma’s speech 2015
STATE OF THE NATION SPEECH
Foreigners will be banned from owning land in South Africa under new proposals outlined by President Jacob Zuma..
Locals will have limits set on the size of their farms under the proposals.
Mr Zuma first announced them in a state of the nation speech on Thursday overshadowed by violence in parliament.
In the future, foreigners will only be allowed to lease land, not to own it, he said, adding that local farmers would not be able to own more than 12,000 hectares.
12 February 2015 Chaos in Parliament – SONA Video
1.29 Land / land claims / 50-50 / 12 000 hectares / no foreign owners (leases only)
State Nation Address February 2015
There is only 0.2% of South African farms bigger than 12000 hectares and may qualify for the so-called land expropriation.
- ANC chairperson Gwede Mantashe believes portions of farms above 12,000 hectares should be expropriated without compensation.
- Large enterprises are responsible for a huge proportion of agricultural output in South Africa.
- But the number of farms above 12,000 hectares makes up 0.22% of all farms in SA, according to the best available numbers.
According to a government land audit based on deeds office data released in February, SA has 419,005 farms at an average of 264 hectares each.
In order to determine how many farms – economic units – above 12,000 hectares there are in South Africa, Bornman queried two databases of land transfers going back to 1994. Between them, the two list a little over 160,000 farms of 10 hectares or more. Of those, 361 – or 0.22% – were bigger than 12,000 hectares.
STATE LAND PUZZLE
The following information was compiled by Burgert Gildenhuys, Executive Director of MapAble and referred to property rights and state land, as well as land never registered .
This following shows the spatial distribution and extent of land under control of the state and organs of state.
The extent of land controlled by the state is unpacked in four steps:
• First, land that is directly state owned and listed in the department spatial data (2013);
• Second, tribal (or traditional) land not included in the department’s data;
• Third, the remnants of the former homeland areas not included under the previous two categories. This land was expropriated for incorporation into the homelands and then transferred to institutions such as the South African Development Trust and former homeland governments; and
• Fourth, the protected areas affected by the National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998) that represent national parks and nature reserves under the control of state entities (mainly South African National Parks) or provincial governments.
It sets state land at 13,357,235ha or 11% of total land. The main categories are: land used for agriculture and fisheries (30.2%), residential purposes (17%), conservation and leisure (25.4%) and undeveloped land (7.9%). These figures include only farms and farm portions and exclude erven or urban properties. The extent of state land in urban areas is not available for all provinces. However, in Gauteng the state owns 185,113 properties which amounts to 25,819ha.
The next category of land to be considered is traditional or tribal land not included in state-land data. Tribal land is not available on the open market nor is freehold ownership allowed. If all tribal land, not included in state land, is added to the equation the total land not privately owned rises to 26,976,657ha or 22.1% of the total land in South Africa.. It implies that there are 13,619,421ha of tribal land not recognised as state land.
The third element to be considered is the portion of former homelands not included in the above. These portions might be a bit problematic in the sense that it is land that was designated and/or expropriated for incorporation into the homelands. This land was transferred to homeland governments prior to 1994. A total of 17,083,490ha must then be added to the previous total covering state land and the remainder of tribal land. The total land controlled by the state then amounts to 44,060,147ha or 36.1% of the total South Africa.
The last category that does not appear in any land audit is formal protected areas which include national parks and nature reserves under the control of provincial governments. These areas are protected by law. Although there are continuous efforts to involve local communities in these areas they are obviously not designated for private ownership or control and must be removed from the land pool. These areas add another 8,050,643ha to the equation and brings the total land under state control to 52,110,790ha or 42.7% of all land in South Africa.
State, tribal, the balance of former homelands plus protected areas
MORE BACKGROUND REGARDING PARKS AND MINING
Geology and Andalusite deposits in South Africa
Volgens die Ekonomiese Ontwikkelingsminister, Ebrahim Patel, het die ongelooflike klein landbousektor wat Suid-Afrika het, tussen 2009 en 2013 oor die 65 000 nuwe werksgeleenthede geskep. In 2012 is gemeld dat daar reeds 638 000 in diens van die landbousektor is. Dit word beraam dat oor die 8.5 miljoen mense direk of indirek afhanklik is van die landbousektor. Heelwat boere maak ook gebruik van seisoenale werkers (immigrante uit ander naburige lande) , wat ook nie ingereken is by hierdie statistieke nie.
Belangrike vrae is dus hoe dit moontlik kan wees dat volgens regerings en ander politieke partye, die blankes 87% grond kan besit, in ag genome die 30++ miljoen immigrante in die land en ander faktore soos mynbedrywighede word hierby uitgesluit. Geliewe ook in ag te neem, dat 5000+ plase (vir grondhervorming) reeds opgekoop is deur regering met belasting injkomstes. Dus, inderwaarheid word titelaktes nooit oorgedra nie, grond word aangekoop met belastingbetaler se geld en die eiendom bly die regering sin want hulle hou die titelaktes..
Die feit dat die ou Tuislande steeds bestaan, net onder ‘n ander naam, word ook nie altyd in ag geneem nie, met oor die 25 miljoen etniese khoisan en swart burgers wat daar woonagtig is. Trustgebiede beloop miljoene hektaar grond, wat nie deur enige blanke besit of bedryf word nie. Trustgebiede word streng volgens kommunale wetgewing bedryf en geen blanke het inset in hierdie wetgewings in Parlement nie.
Mining in South Africa
Saam met die eksplorasie van minerale kom daar ook verskeie soorte siektestoestande.
Gesondheidsrisiko’s met met myneksplorasie
Mine tailings dams and dumps are known to contain elevated levels of uranium. 58 Contamina- tion of streams due to uranium leached to ground and surface water bodies has also been reported. 59 Studies conducted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry a few decades ago showed only a few hotspots of water sources with high levels of radioactivity, 60 making it essential to conduct new studies to investigate this further. There are many other hazards from mining. In particular, underground miners are exposed to high levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from the use of diesel-powered mobile equipment. In addition to causing cardiovascular dysfunction, eye and nose irritation, headaches, nausea and asthma, 61 it also causes neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.
The South African government is committed to controlling the hazards of mining. However, there are a number of issues concerning management of the hazards and risks in South African mines. Health and safety in mines in South Africa is regulated by the Mine Health and Safety Act 29 of 1996 and the Mine Health and Safety Act regulations. The Act and the regulations forbid work in an environment containing hazardous concentrations of dust, noxious fumes and harmful gases without effective protective apparatus. The Act and regulations also set limits for mine dusts and other air pollutants.
Here are different maps and minerals within the boundaries of South Africa.
The mining sector is one of the cornerstones of the economy in South Africa. The mining industry contributes to economic activities, the development of sustainable job opportunities as well as foreign exchange earnings. These natural resources are extracted by the mining industry for different economic activities. The mining sector contributes about 18% to the country’s corporate tax receipts. Even though the mining activities consume 15% of the national electricity, the sector still contributes more
than 95% towards the country’s electricity generation.
1990-2010 Active gold, platinum group metals, coal and iron ore mines in South Africa
This map shows the all the areas proposed for the Tasman RSA mines uranium project. Credit: Tasman RSA mines.
A truck carries newly excavated kimberlite rock out of the open pit at the Voorspoed diamond mine, operated by De Beers SA, in Kroonstad, South Africa
KUMBA IN NORTHERN CAPE
Copper production process in palabora mine south africa through stages mineral ore from the mine underground block-cave
Over 8000 mines were not rehabilitated. Pollution and erosion are millions of hectares of land.
ABANDONED mines – 8000+
Verskeie myne het nooit fisies gesluit en is net so gelos sonder dat enige rehabilitasie plaasgevind het. Dit beloop etlike hektare grond, heelwat is oopgroefmyne. Die aantal myne wat nie gerehabiliteer word nie, is kommerwekkend weens die erosie en besoedeling wat plaasvind.
A data-driven investigation shows that nearly R60bn is being held in funds for the rehabilitation of mines across South Africa. Mpumalanga, the country’s most important coal-mining province, alone holds more than R17bn. Financial provisions for rehabilitation are put up by companies before mining begins, in case a mine is abandoned and the government needs to step in to close it. These provisions come in three forms – cash guarantees, bank guarantees and mine closure trust funds – and are supposed to be either held by or audited by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR). The funds are only returned to a company when it applies for and receives a closure certificate from the DMR, which removes remaining liability from the company. In 2015, the DMR told Oxpeckers that R45bn was held in financial provisions around the country. Information provided by provincial DMR offices in response to requests under the Promotion of Access to Information Act (PAIA) shows that number has risen to at least R57bn.
Myne nooit gesluit of gerehabiliteer
Wildsparke / Parks in South Africa
Toerisme in Suid-Afrika is ‘n groot inkomstebron vir die regering en verskeie provinsies, waarbinne Sanpark opereer. Dis alles nasionale of provinsiale bates en grondgebiede wat bedryf word.
Tourism in South Africa
This is a huge income to government as well. NONE of those lands are in the white hands but is government properties.
In 2014, tourism accounted for close to 10% of all employed people in South Africa.
SOE like Eskom / Koeberg / Airports / Rail / Harbours / etc
No “information” of townships are included – hectares of lands
Minority whites: 8% of population
It is impossible that land is in the hand of minority whites: December 2013
While 12% of South Africa’s land can be used for crop production, only 22% of this is high-potential arable land. The greatest limitation is the availability of water, with uneven and unreliable rainfall. Around 1.3-million hectares are under irrigation, and around 50% of South Africa’s water is used for agriculture.
South Africa’s agriculture sector created 65 000 new jobs between 2009 and 2013, reversing a trend of farming job losses in the country that stretched back to the 1970s, Economic Development Minister Ebrahim Patel said.
However, farming remains vitally important to the economy with 638 000 people formally employed (Statistics SA, 2012 Q2) – although it’s estimated that around 8,5-million people are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture for their employment and income. It contributed R280-million to the GDP in 2011, which is 20% of the total amount generated by the manufacturing sector. It is the third largest contributor to GDP within the sector, after chemicals and metals (Statistics SA, 2012).