Platinum – Bushveld Complex



Implats exploits platiniferous horizons within the Bushveld Complex in South Africa and the Great Dyke in Zimbabwe. These are the two largest known deposits of platinum group minerals in the world and are unique in terms of geological continuity. Mining mostly takes place as underground operations focusing on relatively narrow mineralised horizons with speciic mining methods adapted to suit the local geology and morphology of the mineralised horizons.

Image result for burgersfort platinum mines map mining


Grondgebiede waar myn eksplorasie plaasvind of plaasgevind het,  behoort aan geen blanke of Boer waar daar voedsel produseer word nie.   Sommige of in meeste gevalle is dit oopgroefmyne wat voedselproduksie onmoontlik maak as daar geen rehabilitasie plaasvind nie – besoedeling en veral water besoedeling is ons grootste kopseer wat mynbase maar veral die ANC regering, wat nie hul werk doen nie, aan ons nalaat.

Daar is tans meer as 8000 myne in Suid-Afrika wat nog nooit gerehabiliteer is tot oorspronklike status nie.  Hierdie myngebied is nogal baie groot  66 000 km2   .


The Bushveld Complex

The Bushveld Complex is an extremely large (66 000 km2), two billion year-old layered igneous intrusion occurring in the northern part of South Africa. Rock types range in composition from ultramaic to felsic. The complex is not only unique in size but also in the range and economic signiicance of its contained mineral wealth. In addition to the platinum group metals (PGMs) and associated base metals, vast quantities of chromite, iron, vanadium and dimension stone are produced.

The layered sequence, the Rustenburg Layered Suite, comprises ive major subdivisions, the Marginal, Lower, Critical, Main and Upper Zones.

Two horizons within the Critical Zone, namely the Merensky Reef and the Upper Group 2 (UG2) Reef, host economically exploitable quantities of PGMs. These two horizons, along with other layers, that can be traced for hundreds of kilometres around the complex, are the focus of Implats’ operations. The PGMs – platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium as well as the associated gold, copper, nickel, cobalt, chromite and other minor metals and compounds, are mined and recovered. A detailed geological description of the various reef types is provided in the relevant operations section.



Implats’ operations on the Bushveld Complex comprise Impala Platinum, located north of Rustenburg, and Marula situated north-west of Burgersfort. The Two Rivers Mine, a joint venture between Implats and African Rainbow Minerals Limited (ARM), is located south-west of Burgersfort. Afplats, with its Leeuwkop Project and contiguous prospecting areas is situated west of Brits.


The Great Dyke – Zimbabwe

The Great Dyke is a long (550km) and narrow (11km), 2.5 billion year-old layered igneous intrusion which bisects Zimbabwe in a north-north-easterly trend. Rock types range in composition from ultramaic to maic.

The Dyke is divided vertically into a lower ultramaic sequence, comprising cyclic repetitions of dunite, hartzburgite, pyroxenite and chromitite, and an upper maic sequence consisting mainly of olivine-gabbro, gabbronorite and norite. It is V- to Y-shaped in section with layers dipping and lattening towards the axis of the intrusion.

Much of the maic sequence has been removed by erosion and at the present plane of erosion the Dyke is exposed as a series of narrow contiguous layered complexes or chambers. These are, from north to south, Musengezi, Hartley (comprising the Darwendele and Sebakwe sub-chambers) and a southern chamber comprising the Selukwe and Wedza sub-chambers.

The Main Sulphide Zone (MSZ), host to economically exploitable PGMs and associated base metal mineralisation, is located 10m to 50m below the ultramaic/maic contact in the P1 pyroxenite. Before erosion the MSZ would have been continuously developed along the length of the Dyke. The PGMs – platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium along with gold, copper and nickel occur in the MSZ.

Unlike the Bushveld Complex no chromite is present and it is dificult to identify mineralisation visually. A detailed description of the MSZ and the value distributions is provided in the relevant operations sections. Chromitite layers present below the MSZ contain little to no PGM mineralisation and are mined for their chromium content only.

Implats’ operations on the Great Dyke comprise Zimplats’ Ngezi Mine south-west of Harare and the Mimosa Mine, a joint venture between Implats and Aquarius Platinum Limited (Aquarius) situated east of Bulawayo.

Image result for burgersfort platinum mines map mining



Two Rivers Mine

Two Rivers Mine is located near the town of Steelpoort, in the province of Mpumalanga, on the eastern limb of the Bushveld Complex. The operation comprises an underground mine consisting of the Main Decline, the North Decline and a concentrator plant.

Ownership: ARM owns 54% of Two Rivers Mine, Impala Platinum Holdings Ltd owns the remaining 46%.

Management: Managed by ARM

Refining: All metal in concentrate produced is sold to an Impala Platinum subsidiary, Impala Refining Services (IRS), chrome concentrates are sold through chrome traders to various global end users


Nkomati Mine

Nkomati Mine is located in the Machadodorp area of Mpumalanga province, 300km east of Johannesburg. Nickel mining takes place by means of an underground shaft as well as open-pit mining. Oxidised chromitite is also mined as part of the pre-strip of the future open pits.

Ownership: ARM owns 50% of Nkomati Mine, Norilsk Nickel Africa (Pty) Ltd owns the remaining 50%

Management: The mine is managed as a 50:50 unincorporated joint venture with Norilsk Nickel Africa.

Modikwa Platinum Mine

Modikwa Mine is located 15km northwest of Burgersfort, along the border between the South African provinces of Mpumalanga and Limpopo. The operation comprises an underground mine, some 450m deep, with three decline shafts and a concentrator.

Ownership: Effective 41.5% shareholding held through ARM Mining Consortium, 8.5% is held by local communities and 50% by Anglo American Platinum Ltd

Management: Jointly managed by ARM and Anglo American Platinum

Refining: All metal in concentrate produced is sold to Anglo American Platinum




Based Socio-Economic Charter for the South African Mining and Minerals Industry (the Mining Charter). To this end, and for the benefit of historically disadvantaged South Africans (HDSAs), the Company created the ARM Broad-Based Economic Empowerment Trust (ARM BBEE Trust).

The beneficiaries of the ARM BBEE Trust include seven regional upliftment trusts, a women’s upliftment trust, union representatives, a church group and community leaders. The ARM BBEE Trust was restructured in April 2016 to provide a more permanent and sustainable funding solution for the trust.

The trust owns 15 897 412 ARM shares (30 June 2015: 28 614 740 ARM shares), which is equivalent to 7.29% of the ARM issued share capital at 30 June 2016. As part of the restructuring, the ARM BBEE Trust sold 12 717 328 ARM shares to a wholly owned subsidiary of ARM, which holds these shares as treasury shares.



Zimbabwe currently has the second known largest platinum reserves after South Africa.   
Zimplats, a unit of South Africa’s Impala Platinum, is a platinum group metals mining company that currently operates three underground mines and a concentrator at Ngezi as well as the Selous metallurgical complex, which comprises a concentrator and a smelter.

Zimbabwe has bigger platinum reserves than Russia, requires $5bn.  ZIMBABWE has far bigger platinum reserves than Russia and the capital-intensive mining sector requires $5,3 billion and predictable policies to stimulate platinum output, the Chamber of Mines of Zimbabwe (CMZ) has said.
Zimbabwe-Russia Platinum (more platinum than Russia)


African Rainbow Minerals Limited (ARM)

Sanlam and Motsepe – Sanlam announces during 2018 that its BEE transactions is worth R11 billion – The broad-based deal also extends its partnership with the Patrice Motsepe controlled Ubuntu Botho.  (moneyweb) .  African Rainbow Capital (ARC) is a fully Black owned and controlled company focusing on the South African and African financial services industry and businesses that deliver exceptional returns on equity. It is listed on the JSE, under the Finance – Speciality Finance sector.

Sanlam – Motsepe – Ubuntu-Botho – B-BBEE


ARM is committed to the spirit and objectives of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002, and the Broad-Based Socio-Economic Charter for the South African Mining and Minerals Industry (the Mining Charter). To this end, and for the benefit of historically disadvantaged South Africans (HDSAs), the Company created the ARM Broad-Based Economic Empowerment Trust (ARM BBEE Trust).

BBEE Trustfund Motsepe


Dr Motsepe is the founder and Executive Chairman of African Rainbow Minerals (ARM). He is also the founder and Chairman of Ubuntu-Botho Investments, African Rainbow Capital (ARC), African Rainbow Energy and Power (AREP) and is the Chairman of Harmony.  Dr Motsepe was a partner in one of the largest law firms in South Africa, Bowman Gilfillan Inc. He was a visiting attorney in the USA with the law firm McGuire Woods Battle and Boothe.

Dr Motsepe





The eastern limb of South Africa’s platinum belt has been hit by over 400 incidents of social unrest impacting mining operations since the start of 2016, according to data compiled by Anglo American Platinum (Amplats) and provided to Reuters.

The restive region in the country’s northeast has been a flashpoint of violence rooted in community grievances over jobs, revenue flows and conflict between rival unions that threaten production in the world’s top producer of the precious metal.

Last week six workers were burnt to death in the area when the bus they were on was set alight by a petrol bomb. The bus was transporting them to their shifts at the Modikwa platinum mine operated by African Rainbow Minerals and Amplats.

The compiled incidents range from roadblocks to wildcat strikes to physical assaults against miners.

On average over the period, either a roadblock, wildcat strike, march or act of violence took place in the region every second day which affected a mining operation in some way.

The data does not give estimates on production or revenue losses and does not compare with earlier periods. But it provides a sobering snapshot of a region in a perpetual state of unrest that has undermined the viability of some operations.

It shows that from 1 January 2016 to 31 March of this year, there were 225 roadblocks in the region that disrupted mining operations. These typically involve protesters who halt traffic with burning tyres and other debris.

Over the same period, there were 14 marches that were sanctioned by authorities and 107 illegal marches, which meant they did not receive police permission in advance.

The period also saw 40 wildcat strikes or work stoppages and there were at least 55 recorded acts of violence.

The operations most affected in terms of the sheer number of incidents were Bokoni, a mothballed joint venture shared by Amplats and Atlatsa Resources, which recorded 122, and Impala Platinum’s (Implats) Marula mine, which had 102.

Bokoni suffered 68 roadblocks over the period while Marula was hit by 56. A spokesman for Impala said the local police and the companies shared such data among themselves which is updated on a regular basis.

In the 2016 financial year, Marula lost 10,000 ounces of almost 80,000 ounces of production.

The often violent disruptions of its operations had raised concerns about Marula’s viability last year.

A nearby community chrome project, which had triggered violent protests by locals who felt excluded from its revenue stream, was restarted earlier year, leading to a decline in community disruptions and a return to profit for the mine.

The least affected was Amplats’ Twickenham operation, which is now used for research and development. It only suffered one roadblock during the period and had no other incidents recorded.

Modikwa had 19 roadblocks and three acts of violence. The data was compiled before last week’s killings took place.

Much of the discontent stems from the stark juxtaposition of joblessness and grinding poverty atop some of the world’s richest platinum reserves. Amplats says the unemployment in the area, set amid rolling green hills, is close to 80 percent.

Local resident Tumi Shai, in his mid-20s, idly played a makeshift board game for gambling with dice fashioned from a piece of cardboard set on top of plastic crates. He has a high school diploma but no job.

“They could do more there’s lots of money here. These business people make millions. We just survive by gambling,” he told Reuters.


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