Novichok poison – gif

Om iemand met opset te vergiftig om ‘n lewe te beïndig,  is moord en so iemand wat dit doen, moet van moord aangekla word.   Chemiese oorlogvoering en vergiftiging is deel van sekere gifstowwe.   In Suid-Afrika ervaar veral blankes die hel van martelings, kapmesse, swaar ysters en outomatiese gewere waarmee hul aangeval word, op plase en in stede/dorpe.  Daar is ook die kapings wat erg traumaties is.   Daar is geen verskil tussen moordenaars en misdaad wat ander mense se lewens hel maak.

Current - Murder by poison - Novichok nerve agent in the UK and other  deadly toxins | BigFooty

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So is dit ook met plaasaanvalle (of dorp/stad), marteling, verkragtings en moorde, dit word opsetlik gepleeg om die Boere wat voedsel selfs aan die moordenaar en sy familie verskaf, te vermoor.   Hoeveel moordenaars is al sedert 1994 gevind, verhoor en vervolg?   Boere of gesinne , die in dorpe en stede, verwag nie aanvalle nie, maar moet 100% voorbereid wees op aanvalle.   Heelwat aanvallers loods ook geweldadige optrede teenoor diere soos honde wat beskerm.  Meeste aanvallers in Suid-Afrika kom ook nie enkel-enkel om aan te val nie en verdwyn daarna.   Dalk word hul gebreinspoel of baie betaal om die misdaad van marteling, verkragting en moorde uit te voer.   Ons lewe beslis nie nou in 1960 nie.    En die persone wat die moorde uitvoer is netso skuldig soos diegene wat die opdragte gee om blankes (of ander) te vermoor.   Diegene wat van Novichok gif gebruik maak om te vermoor, is en bly ‘n moordenaar, dit geld vir die wat die opdrag gee en diegene wat dit uitvoer, albei is skuldig.

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Novichok-agente is grootliks as gevolg van inligting wat jare gelede deur ‘n voormalige Russiese chemiese wapenwetenskaplike, Vil Mirzayanov, bekend gemaak is. In 1992 publiseer Mirzayanov saam met sy kollega Lev Fedorov ‘n artikel in ‘n Russiese koerant waarin aspekte van Rusland se ontwikkeling van senuweestowwe uiteengesit word, ondanks die dreigende ondertekening van die Verdrag oor Chemiese Wapens. Mirzayanov en Fedorov beweer dat die Novichok-agente van die 1970’s tot die 1990’s ontwikkel is.   Hierdie chemiese wapen is nie om dowe neute ontwikkel nie.

Aangesien daar geen spesifieke toksikologiese data vir die Novichok-middels beskikbaar is nie, is dit nie moontlik om presies te weet hoe dodelik dit is nie.   Duidelik is dit baie dodelik.   Daar word egter berig dat sommige van hulle tot tien keer meer dodelik kan wees as VX, nog ‘n dodelike senuwee-middel. VX kan doodmaak as ‘n persoon se vel blootgestel word aan slegs tien milligram.  Dit is ook interessant hoe groot ontwikkelde lande agter hierdie chemiese wapenstowwe en -ontwikkeling is.

Reaksies en nagevolge 

Simptome van blootstelling aan senuweegasse kan aanvanklik alledaags wees. Diegene wat geraak word, kan ‘n loopneus, oormatige speekselafskeiding en sweet, en gekrimpte pupille opmerk. Hierdie simptome neem vinnig toe, tot die borsvernouing, asemhalingsprobleme, naarheid en braking en verlies aan dermbeheer. Hierdie geleidelike verlies aan liggaamsfunksie duur voort, wat uitloop op spasma en stuiptrekkings, en miskien koma, voor die uiteindelike dood as gevolg van asemhalingsversaking. Die gevolge van blootstelling duur vir ‘n aansienlike tyd, en selfs diegene wat gelukkig genoeg is om te oorleef, doen dit nie noodwendig ongeskonde nie; hulle ly gewoonlik aan neurologiese skade.

Teenmiddels teen senuwee-middels bestaan wel. Verbindings wat asetielcholienreseptore blokkeer, kan doeltreffend wees om senuwee-agentvergiftiging te versag, en om hierdie rede word die chemiese atropien algemeen as ‘n onderdeel van teenmiddels gebruik.

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Since no specific toxicology data is available for the Novichok agents, it is not possible to know exactly how deadly they are. However, it is reported that some of them can be up to ten times more lethal than VX, another deadly nerve agent. VX can kill if a person’s skin is exposed to just ten milligrams.

What we know about Novichok agents is largely as a result of information divulged by a former Russian chemical weapons scientist, Vil Mirzayanov. In 1992, Mirzayanov, along with his colleague Lev Fedorov, published an article in a Russian newspaper detailing aspects of Russia’s development of nerve agents, despite the imminent signing of the Chemical Weapons Treaty. Mirzayanov and Fedorov claimed that the Novichok agents were developed from the 1970s up to the 1990s.

Symptoms of exposure to nerve gases can be initially mundane. Those affected may notice a runny nose, excess salivation and sweating, and contracted pupils. These symptoms quickly escalate, however, to constriction of the chest, difficulties in breathing, nausea and vomiting, and loss of bowel control. This gradual loss of body function continues, culminating in spasm and convulsions, and perhaps coma, before eventual death due to respiratory failure. The effects of exposure last for a significant amount of time, and even those lucky enough to survive do not necessarily do so unscathed; they commonly suffer neurological damage.

Antidotes to nerve agents do exist. Compounds that block acetylcholine receptors can be effective at mitigating nerve agent poisoning, and for this reason the chemical atropine is commonly used as a component of antidotes.

What are Novichok agents? What we do (and don't) know about them – Compound  Interest

https://www.compoundchem.com/2018/03/12/novichok/

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Andrei Zheleznyakov

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/22/andrei-zheleznyakov-soviet-scientist-poisoned-novichok

War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to al-Qaeda (review)

https://muse.jhu.edu/article/231579/pdf

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What are Novichok agents?

The name Novichok means ‘newcomer’ in Russian and applies to a group of advanced nerve agents developed by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s.
One of the chemicals – called A-230 – is reportedly five to eight times more toxic than VX nerve agent, which can kill a person within minutes.
A number of variants of this chemical have been manufactured, and one of them was reportedly approved for use by the Russian military as a chemical weapon.
Some of the agents are also reported to be ‘binary weapons’, meaning the nerve agent is typically stored as two less toxic chemicals. When they are mixed together, they react to produce the more toxic agent.
What are the different types?
Novichok agents are one of three classes of nerve agents – the other two are G-Agents and V-Agents.
G-agents include Sarin while V-agents include VX, an oily amber-coloured liquid.

If you have ever sprayed insect repellent at a fly, you might have seen it drop to the ground and lie on its back, legs twitching. This is the result of nerve agents taking hold.

The nerve agent needs to be ingested, inhaled or to penetrate through the skin, so it usually requires the person delivering it to get very close to the people they are targeting.

Only tiny amounts are required for it to take effect. It is so toxic that it would usually be transported in something tightly sealed and those who apply it will need protective clothing.   Dr Andrea Sella, professor of inorganic chemistry at University College London, said because of the extreme toxicity of the nerve agents it would be “very dangerous” to the person who delivered the poisoning.

https://www.medglobal.info/novichok.htm

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Nerve agents were discovered through pesticide research. They belong to a group of substances known as organophosphorus chemicals, or “OPs” for short. There are literally thousands of OP substances, many of which can damage the body by inhibiting a family of enzymes known as “cholinesterases” that are critical to regulating the activity of the central nervous system in animals.

Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny is likely to survive a suspected poisoning with the nerve agent Novichok, according to the hospital treating him. There have now been at least six known cases of serious Novichok poisoning in the past two years. But only one victim tragically died from it.

https://theconversation.com/novichok-how-are-victims-surviving-poisoning-145574

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Novichok A234 was the weapon of choice for settling a score with a former Russian spy, Sergei Skripal, in Salisbury in the United Kingdom in March 2018.
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/09/how-german-military-scientists-likely-identified-nerve-agent-used-attack-alexei-navalny

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But new evidence unearthed in Russia shows not only that an entire group of substances called Novichok did indeed exist, but that some was obtained by criminals after being produced in a government lab as late as 1994 — and has since killed at least two people.

Reporters for Novaya Gazeta, a partner of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP), tracked down records from a sealed 1995 criminal case in which a Russian banker and his secretary were murdered using a poisonous substance.

According to a specialist who took part in Rink’s interrogation, 0.25 grams of the substance would be enough to poison 100 people.  “If applied to the skin, only a hundredth of the amount contained in a vial would be enough to kill a person weighing around 80-90 kilograms,” he said, according to the interrogation document.

The case began in August 1995, after the sudden death of Ivan Kivelidi — then head of a private bank called Rosbusinessbank — and his secretary, Zara Ismayilova. Both were found to have been poisoned.

An investigation of Kivelidi’s workplace and of the objects in his office revealed that the poison had been placed beneath the rubber cap, just over five millimeters in size, that covered a screw in his telephone receiver. The substance was used in very small quantities and left a barely noticeable trace.

https://www.occrp.org/en/investigations/7905-novichok-has-already-killed

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September 2020 – Nerve agent Novichok found in Russia’s Alexei Navalny: German reports

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