Is die virus van 2020 dieselfde virus as 2013 of ‘n ander “weergawe – mutasie” wat in 2010 genoem is en selfs sover terug as 1960? Indien wel, daar is reeds heelwat navorsing hieroor gedoen?
What happened during the early days of SARS 10 years ago. Hospital spread of this new virus is a real concern; it was first identified, retrospectively, in an outbreak in a hospital in Jordan a year ago, and international concern really picked up after the acknowledgement of a current outbreak in the Al-Ahsa region of Saudi Arabia. Now it appears there is a third instance of hospital spread, in France. Several days ago the French Ministry of Health announced a single case, a Frenchman who had traveled to Dubai and may have been infected there.
The isolation of the coronavirus (CoV) identified as the cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the detection of 2 new human CoVs (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1) have led to studies of the epidemiology and clinical and socioeconomic effects of infections caused by all HCoVs, including those known since the late 1960s (HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43). HCoV infections can be associated with respiratory and extrarespiratory manifestations, including central nervous system involvement. Furthermore, unlike other RNA viruses, HCoVs can easily mutate and recombine when different strains infect the same cells and give rise to a novel virus with unpredictable host ranges and pathogenicity. Thus, circulating HCoVs should be closely monitored to detect the spread of particularly virulent strains in the community at an early stage and to facilitate the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic measures.
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been known since the late 1960s as a group of viruses capable of infecting humans and animals . In a wide variety of animals, they cause respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurologic diseases that, in some cases (especially when they infect the young), can be severe . However, until the pathogen identified as the cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was isolated , the previously known HCoVs (HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43) were considered to play a marginal clinical role in pediatrics. This conclusion was made mainly because, on the basis of the data available at the time, HCoVs were believed to cause only mild upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children and that only in premature infants and children with a chronic underlying disease could severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) develop . Moreover, no importance was placed on reports that suggested a possible relationship with the development of extrarespiratory problems, including central nervous system (CNS) involvement, in which HCoVs can persist and play a role in causing chronic neurologic disorders . Consequently, the circulation of HCoVs was not monitored, and no attempt was made to develop vaccines or drugs that were active against the viruses.
SARS-CoV does not seem to cause extrarespiratory problems in children, but all of the other HCoVs can be associated with signs and symptoms involving organs and systems other than the respiratory tract. Abdominal pain, emesis, and diarrhea can be the first signs and symptoms of an acute infection due to non-SARS CoVs. These manifestations have been reported, particularly in the cases of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63, and seem to be the direct consequences of viral invasion of the intestinal mucosa, as suggested by the presence of HCoV-like particles in the stool samples of many patients with acute disease
The WHO announced that its assistant director-general Dr. Keiji Fukuda held a press conference in Riyadh in Saudi Arabia about this emerging disease, and released the text of his statement there. This is good news because it is a sign that Saudi Arabia must be becoming more open to the involvement of international authorities (something which my contacts have told me they are worried about); in fact, toward the end of the statement, he makes a diplomatic point of praising the Kingdom’s public-health response to the outbreak.
12 May 2013
The emergence of this new coronavirus is globally recognized as an important and major challenge for all of the countries which have been affected as well as the rest of the world. The Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has recognized this and invited the World Health Organization (WHO) to help them assess the situation and to provide guidance and recommendations. WHO is pleased to be here to work together with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
At this time there are some things about this new disease we understand. However I would like to remind everyone that this is a new infection and there are also many gaps in our knowledge that will inevitably take time to fill in.
We know that the disease is caused by a virus from a group called coronaviruses. One member of the coronavirus family is the SARs virus. This new virus is NOT the SARS virus. They are distinct from each other. However, the fact that they are related has added to the world’s concern. We know this virus has infected people since 2012, but we don’t know where this virus lives. We know that when people get infected, many of them develop severe pneumonia. What we don’t know is how often people might develop mild disease. We also know that most of the persons who have been infected so far have been older men, often with other medical conditions. We are not sure why we are seeing this pattern and if it will change over time.
There are many other things that we don’t understand. For example, how are people getting infected? Is it from animals? Is it from contaminated surfaces? Is it from other people? Finally, we don’t know how widespread is this virus, both in this region and in other countries. The greatest global concern, however, is about the potential for this new virus to spread. This is partly because the virus has already caused severe disease in multiple countries, although in small numbers, and has persisted in the region since 2012. Of most concern, however, is the fact that the different clusters seen in multiple countries increasingly support the hypothesis that when there is close contact this novel coronavirus can transmit from person-to-person. This pattern of person-to- person transmission has remained limited to some small clusters and so far, there is no evidence that this virus has the capacity to sustain generalized transmission in communities.
At this point, several urgent actions are needed. The most important ones are the need for countries, both inside and outside of the region, to increase their levels of awareness among all people but especially among staff working in their health systems and to increase their levels of surveillance about this new infection. In Saudi Arabia, we have seen the importance of better surveillance.
When new cases are found, as is likely, it is critical for countries to report these cases and related information urgently to WHO as required by the International Health Regulations because this is the basis for effective international alertness, preparedness and response. Countries also need to assess their level of preparedness and readiness if this virus should spread and to intensify strengthening the core capacities identified in the International Health Regulations if they are not adequate. WHO is ready to assist countries in this region and globaly in these tasks. There are also some questions that urgently need to be answered including how are people are getting infected, and what are the main risk factors for either infection or development of severe disease. The answers to these questions hold the keys to preventing infection.
In closing, we want to note that the Government of Saudi Arabia has taken the novel coronavirus situation very seriously. The Ministry of Health has initiated crucial public health actions – including intensifying surveillance, initiating investigations and important research and putting control measures in place. One of the reasons why more cases have been identified in KSA may be because they have gone ahead to strengthen their surveillance system and lab capacities and network.**
This article was in 2013 – The Coronavirus NL63 has been identified as a new member of the coronavirus genus, but its role as a cause of respiratory disease needs to be established. The first episode of lower respiratory tract symptoms in a cohort of healthy neonates wasstudied. NL63 was identified in 6 (7%) of 82 cases and was as frequent as other coronaviruses (9%). NL63 was recovered at the onset of symptoms and was cleared within 3 weeks in half of the cases. Our data suggests that coronavirus NL63 causes lower respiratory tract symptoms and is acquired in early life.
The so-called common-cold viruses (rhinovirus and coronavirus), which are often not routinely detected, present similar clinical illnesses but are epidemiologically much more frequently present
What is the frequency of influenza infections in immunocompromised hosts and what is the relative importance of influenza compared with other respiratory viruses that are circulating in the community? Although every immunocompromised subject is at risk for influenza during seasonal outbreaks (the severity of which can vary from year to year), influenza seems not to be the most frequent respiratory virus affecting these subjects. The so-called common-cold viruses (rhinovirus and coronavirus), which are often not routinely detected, present similar clinical illnesses but are epidemiologically much more frequently present.
Studies have suggested that neuraminidase inhibitors are also effective in the elderly and those with chronic lung diseases, but these drugs have never been evaluated systematically in hospitalized subjects or in immuno-compromised hosts. Whether the expected benefit would be significant in these populations remains to be proven
Is there a common key point that could promote influenza resistance in immuno-compromised hosts, in children with an acute primary infection, and in human cases of H5N1 avian influenza? This is possibly the combination of a delayed or failing immune response with a protracted infection and high viral loads. Given the intrinsic abilities of influenza to mutate or even to recombine, this is an invitation to select new mutants while exposed to drugs, particularly if drug levels are suboptimal.
Michael M. C. Lai is a long-time RNA virologist. His research career spans more than 40 years and covers various topics of retrovirus, coronavirus, and hepatitis D and C viruses. He spent most of his career at the University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles. In 2003, he moved to Academia Sinica, Taiwan, where he expanded his research interest to dengue virus and influenza virus. Currently he is a distinguished professor and director of the Center for Emerging Viruses, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Among his credit was an appointment as Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. He received Presidential Science Medallion of Taiwan (2013) and Nikkei Asia Prize in Science and Technology (2017). He was a long-time editor of Virology.
2004, Randy A. Albrecht
His research interests focus on host-pathogen interactions involving respiratory viruses, developing animal models of disease, and developing vaccines against respiratory viruses. His research is currently supported by funding from the National
Institutes of Health.
Christin Bruchhagen first joined the lab of Christina Ehrhardt as a practical student investigating the molecular basis of influenza-host interactions and then moved to the field of viral and bacterial superinfections for her master’s thesis in 2013. Since 2014 she continues the research of pathogen-host interactions in the context of influenza and S. aureus super-infections as a PhD student. Her work is currently funded by the University of Mu¨nster (IMF-EH121307).
2013 – What is the Coronavirus?
ITV of Prof. Laurent Kaiser, University Hospitals of Geneva, control and prevention against influenza, coronavirus and emerging viruses, during ICPIC 2013 — International Conference on Prevention and Infection Control – Geneva
Authorities are acting aggressively as the number of cases in China has grown to more than 300 and stretched to five additional countries, including the first diagnosis in the U.S. The World Health Organization will decide Wednesday whether to declare the virus an international public health emergency, a designation used for complex epidemics that can cross borders. As they did during the SARS and Ebola outbreaks, health officials and scientists are tracking patients and testing samples of saliva and other fluids to determine the exact cause and severity of their ailments. They’re identifying and monitoring people with whom the patients were in contact to see if the virus is spreading easily from person to person. And they are placing restrictions on travel to try to limit the exposure to scores of new people. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded its inspection of airline passengers who had spent time in China to airports in Atlanta and Chicago on Tuesday, building on the 1,200 people who had been screened in California and New York over the weekend. No new cases were uncovered. Six patients in China have died from the infection, which also sickened health-care workers who were caring for them. “This is an evolving situation,” said Nancy Messonnier, director of the CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “We do expect additional cases in the United States and globally.” Researchers at the National Institutes of Health and the CDC are working on a test that will allow doctors to rapidly diagnose the virus in the field, said Schaffner, though Messonnier cautioned that it could take time. They also started preliminary work on a vaccine to prevent the infection, Schaffner said. That could also take time, however. A vaccine for Ebola that was recently approved in the U.S. took several years to develop following outbreaks in Africa in the past decade.
It is reported on 22 January 2020 that the deadly Wuhan coronavirus, officially called 2019-nCoV, has killed 17 people and infected at least 554 others in China as of Wednesday. The US confirmed its first case, a man in his 30s in Washington state who had visited China.
Coronavirus – China (2019-nCoV)
Countries including Japan, Australia and the US have adopted screening measures for those arriving from China due to concerns about a global outbreak like that caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which spread from China to more than a dozen countries in 2002 and 2003 and killed nearly 800 people. An analysis from Imperial College London last week estimated the number of cases in Wuhan was probably around 1,700 – but could even be as high as 4,500.