Texas – Oil – fracking – Permian Basin

According to the Texas Railroad Commission, more than 7,000 oil fields now dot the Permian Basin, and recent increased use of enhanced-recovery practices (like like hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking) has resulted in “a substantial impact on U.S. oil production.” In the meantime, a team of researchers from Southern Methodist University (SMU) in Dallas, Texas, has made a startling discovery. They’ve found that large portions of four Texas counties in the Permian Basin are both sinking and uplifting.

Image result for 7,000 seismic events near Pecos

*

Dis ‘n baie groot area en die omgewing onherstelbaar beskadig.  Wat help dit met die tipe vooruitgang wat jou lewenstyl, lewe in die area later totaal onleefbaar maak as daar soveel sinkgate gaan wees , gaan niemand daar wil bly nie.   Hier in Suid-Afrika is heelwat sulke myne wat eenvoudig netso gelos word sonder herstel, meestal plase waar voedsel verbou was.

*
Once upon a time it was …. but now …. is not “climate change”…

The oil-rich Permian Basin is having a resurgence in active drilling. Researchers report that, in one place, the ground has shifted 40 inches (about a meter) over the past two-and-a-half years.

The counties are Winkler, Ward, Reeves and Pecos, an area nearly the size of the U.S. state of Connecticut (about 4,000 square miles, or 10,000 square km). The study area in these counties includes the Texas towns of Pecos, Monahans, Fort Stockton, Imperial, Wink and Kermit.

A large swath of Texas is heaving and sinking

*

ABANDONED OIL/GAS FRACKING- WHO CAN FARM ON SUCH LANDS?   No-body


Fracking is dangerous for human, animals and environment.

There are thousands of old abandoned mines in South Africa, old coal mines (open), without any rehabilitation.   The mine companies are supposed to do 100% rehabilitation. 

Those areas are huge, millions of hectare of land, and most of those lands were also farmland before the mining took place.
*

Grootskaalse besoedeling (alle tipes en vlakke) vind plaas, as gevolg van myn van steenkool, goud, en ander minerale, daar word selde of ooit rehabilitasie op die grond gedoen dat dit weer herstel word.   Hierdie regering gee nie om daaroor nie, want al hierdie gebiede was eens landbougebied/plase waar daar voedsel geproduseer is.

Hierdie gebiede of plase behoort lankal aan geen boer nie, want niemand kan daar boer nie, net soos daar ook nie in Amerika of elders geboer word op die gebiede, waar mineraaleksplorasie plaasgevind het nie.  Waarom besit regerings dan wetgewing om te rehabiliteer en daar word baie duisende gevra hiervoor, wat word van hierdie rehabilitasiefondse van myne.  Waarom is dit net sekere myne wat herstelwerk doen en ander nie?

Na eksplorasies met geen rehabilitasie,  gee die regering en politici die blanke of apartheid die skuld en word beweer ons volkslede het die grond gesteel of gevat, wat nie die waarheid is nie.     Hierdie gebiede beloop miljoene hektaar grond en word nie net nooit herstel nie, maar besoedeling vind ook plaas, veral waterbesoedeling, waar ons in Suid-Afrika ‘n groot tekort het.

Pollution: South African HOTSPOT – Eskom power stations – Witbank

*

2018 – New research finds “…large swath of West Texas oil patch is heaving and sinking at alarming rates.” We went out to see for ourselves.

*

“Reports of hydraulic fracking causing felt earthquakes are extremely rare. However, wastewater produced by the hydraulic fracturing process can cause “induced” earthquakes when it is injected into deep wastewater wells.

Wastewater disposal wells typically operate for longer durations and inject much more fluid than wells that are extracting oil through hydraulic fracturing. Wastewater injection can raise pressure levels in the rock formation more than the process of hydraulic fracturing does, and increases the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

Most wastewater injection wells are not associated with felt earthquakes. A combination of many factors is necessary for injection to induce felt earthquakes.”

https://www.americangeosciences.org/critical-issues/faq/does-hydraulic-fracturing-cause-earthquakes

*

Image result for Permian Basin

*

The study was published March 16, 2018, in Nature’s peer-reviewed journal Scientific Reports. Among other things, the study suggests that two giant sinkholes near Wink, Texas might be just “the tip of the iceberg.”
Geohazards pose a severe threat to humanity, civilian properties, infrastructures, and industries, possibly leading to the loss of life and high economic values1. Monitoring areas prone to geohazards is invaluable for locating their precursory signals on the surface, alerting civilians to potential disasters, mitigating the catastrophic outcomes, and facilitating the decision-making processes on the construction and operation of infrastructures and industrial facilities. The United States mid-continent has long been considered geologically stable with no large scale tectonic movements, volcanism, or seismic activities.

In West Texas, human activities such as groundwater exploitation, fluid injection, and hydrocarbon extraction have resulted in surface instability, leading to geohazards such as surface heave/subsidence, fault reactivation, induced seismicity, and sinkhole formation.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23143-6

*

The earth is crumbling in West Texas. Scientists from Southern Methodist University have new research that shows two massive sinkholes between the towns of Wink and Kermit are expanding.

Years of drilling for oil and gas have helped wash away salt beds underneath the ground. A shifting water table has made the problem worse and in some places the ground is sinking five inches a year, according to the satellite readings.

Water is the problem. West Texas, not far from Odessa, is oil country. Drillers started working near Wink in the mid-1920s. For decades, they injected water into the ground and destabilized the earth, according to the researchers. Meanwhile, as the water table shrinks, thick layers of salt are dissolved far below the surface.

In fact, the SMU researchers used satellite imaging to show the problem is getting worse. That’s saying something because the holes are already big. One’s 361 feet across. The other is nearly three times larger, more than a couple football fields wide.

A few years ago, roads near town started buckling under the weight of 80,000-pound trucks rolling in from the oil fields. “The roads are sinking,” Keely says. “We have fissures in them now. Cracks. That’s the scariest part.”

https://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2016/06/28/wink-texas-sink-holes

*

Image result for Permian Basin

*

TEXAS

https://www.dallasnews.com/news/environment/2019/11/11/fracking-may-indeed-be-causing-earthquakes-in-texas-according-to-ut-study/

 

Laat 'n boodskap

Verskaf jou besonderhede hieronder of klik op 'n logo om in te teken:

WordPress.com Logo

Jy lewer kommentaar met jou rekening by WordPress.com. Log Out /  Verander )

Google photo

Jy lewer kommentaar met jou rekening by Google. Log Out /  Verander )

Twitter picture

Jy lewer kommentaar met jou rekening by Twitter. Log Out /  Verander )

Facebook photo

Jy lewer kommentaar met jou rekening by Facebook. Log Out /  Verander )

Connecting to %s