Hantavirus

 

1993 ….. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses.   Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantaviruses is at risk of HPS. Rodent infestation in and around the home remains the primary risk for hantavirus exposure. Even healthy individuals are at risk for HPS infection if exposed to the virus.

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Physiotherapy Breathing Exercises to help clear your chest from fluid and phlegm.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kC-H8fFzZes

 

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MUTASIES OP MUTASIES ?

Hanta jaag vir Corona rond … 1993 tot 2020.      Nou hoe nou, hoe het dit hier uitgebreek?   Tas die longe aan, gebrek aan suurstof en asem.

In May of 1993, an outbreak of an unexplained pulmonary illness occurred in the southwestern United States. Within a short period, investigators discovered that five young, healthy people had all died after acute respiratory failure. By November, the specific hantavirus that caused the outbreak was isolated. Since then, hantavirus outbreaks have occurred in a number of places across the U.S.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDbAsg16ibk *

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UCSF’s Charles Chiu, MD, PhD, discusses hantavirus, a potentially fatal virus transmitted by rodents such as deer mice, which is making news following an outbreak at a popular tourist area of Yosemite National Park. The recent cases are a reminder for campers to be cautious, but not necessarily fearful, said Chiu. Previous hantavirus cases in Yosemite had originated at higher elevations, which are favored by the deer mouse that carries the virus, said Chiu, who directs the UCSF-Abbott Viral Diagnostics and Discovery Center. Other rodents, including house mice, are rarely if ever carriers of the virus.

PREVENTION

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Orthohantavirus is a genus of single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Hantaviridae of the order Bunyavirales. Members of this genus may be called orthohantaviruses or simply hantaviruses. They normally cause infection in rodents, but do not cause disease in them.

Hantaviruses are a family of viruses spread mainly by rodents and can cause varied disease syndromes in people worldwide. Infection with any hantavirus can produce hantavirus disease in people. Hantaviruses in the Americas are known as “New World” hantaviruses and may cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses.

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A man in China died to a virus unrelated to the new coronavirus – has caused some alarm on social media. We bring you the facts on this virus.*As the world rallies against the Covid-19 pandemic, news from China involving another virus has caused alarm in some parts.   According to reports from the Chinese province Yunnan, a man died a few days after he had tested positive for hantavirus. He had been travelling back to Shandong Province for work, according to a tweet from China’s Global Times.

Thirty-two more people who were on the bus, were also tested, but the results of their tests were not clear.    The news has caused some panic on social media, as people speculate about the origin of the virus – drawing parallels with the coronavirus which had its first cases in Wuhan, China.   But hantavirus is nothing like the latest strain of coronavirus – let’s look at the facts.

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What is the hantavirus?

Hantaviruses are viruses spread by rodents. There are several strains of hantaviruses, which can cause an illness known as Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a respiratory illness that starts with flu-like symptoms.

How does this virus spread?

A hantavirus is only spread through the rodents to humans and can’t be spread from human to human.

It is therefore only possible to get sick from this virus directly from a rat infestation – tiny particles of rat droppings, urine or saliva can be inhaled when stirred up into the air, or when directly handled with bare hands and then touching the face and nose.

The World Health Organization says cases of human hantavirus infection usually occur in rural areas – forests, fields, and farms – where sylvatic rodents hosting the virus might be found.

Humans can also be infected with hantavirus when bitten by a rodent. The following activities can put people at risk for HPS:

  • Improper cleaning of rodent infestations and nests.
  • Cleaning any shed, cabin, garage or building that was closed for a prolonged period.
  • Working in areas where there might be rodent infestations such as barns.

It is therefore best to avoid the risk by wearing a protective mask when cleaning rodent nests and droppings up with a broom, to avoid inhaling the particles stirred up into the air.

What are the symptoms of HPS?

When you get infected with a hantavirus, you might suffer from HPS. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Headaches and body aches
  • Abdominal cramps

After ten days, fluid may start forming in the lungs, which may cause fatal respiratory failure.

Where there any outbreaks in the past?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the following outbreaks were listed:

  • March 2002 in the Republic of Panama
  • September 2012 in Yosemite Park, US
  • January 2019 in the Republic of Panama and the Argentine Republic

https://www.health24.com/Medical/infectious-diseases/News/a-man-in-china-died-from-hantavirus-and-the-news-has-caused-some-alarm-but-what-is-this-virus-20200324

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Are there any complications?

Previous observations of patients that develop HPS from New World Hantaviruses recover completely. No chronic infection has been detected in humans. Some patients have experienced longer than expected recovery times, but the virus has not been shown to leave lasting effects on the patient.

Treating HPS

There is no specific treatment, cure, or vaccine for hantavirus infection. However, we do know that if infected individuals are recognized early and receive medical care in an intensive care unit, they may do better. In intensive care, patients are intubated and given oxygen therapy to help them through the period of severe respiratory distress.

The earlier the patient is brought in to intensive care, the better. If a patient is experiencing full distress, it is less likely the treatment will be effective.

Therefore, if you have been around rodents and have symptoms of fever, deep muscle aches, and severe shortness of breath, see your doctor immediately. Be sure to tell your doctor that you have been around rodents—this will alert your physician to look closely for any rodent-carried disease, such as HPS.

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To date, no cases of HPS have been reported in the United States in which the virus was transmitted from one person to another. In fact, in a study of health care workers who were exposed to either patients or specimens infected with related types of hantaviruses (which cause a different disease in humans), none of the workers showed evidence of infection or illness.

In Chile and Argentina, rare cases of person-to-person transmission have occurred among close contacts of a person who was ill with a type of hantavirus called Andes virus.

https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps/diagnosis.html

Where Hantavirus is Found

Cases of human hantavirus infection occur sporadically, usually in rural areas where forests, fields, and farms offer suitable habitat for the virus’s rodent hosts. Areas around the home or work where rodents may live (for example, houses, barns, outbuildings, and sheds) are potential sites where people may be exposed to the virus. In the US and Canada, the Sin Nombre hantavirus is responsible for the majority of cases of hantavirus infection. The host of the Sin Nombre virus is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), present throughout the western and central US and Canada.

Several other hantaviruses are capable of causing hantavirus infection in the US. The New York hantavirus, carried by the white-footed mouse, is associated with HPS cases in the northeastern US. The Black Creek hantavirus, carried by the cotton rat, is found in the southeastern US. Cases of HPS have been confirmed elsewhere in the Americas, including Canada, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

How People Become Infected with Hantaviruses

In the United States, deer mice (along with cotton rats and rice rats in the southeastern states and the white-footed mouse in the Northeast) are reservoirs of the hantaviruses. The rodents shed the virus in their urine, droppings, and saliva. The virus is mainly transmitted to people when they breathe in air contaminated with the virus.

When fresh rodent urine, droppings, or nesting materials are stirred up, tiny droplets containing the virus get into the air. This process is known as “airborne transmission“.

There are several other ways rodents may spread hantavirus to people:

  • If a rodent with the virus bites someone, the virus may be spread to that person, but this type of transmission is rare.
  • Scientists believe that people may be able to get the virus if they touch something that has been contaminated with rodent urine, droppings, or saliva, and then touch their nose or mouth.
  • Scientists also suspect people can become sick if they eat food contaminated by urine, droppings, or saliva from an infected rodent.

The hantaviruses that cause human illness in the United States cannot be transmitted from one person to another. For example, you cannot get these viruses from touching or kissing a person who has HPS or from a health care worker who has treated someone with the disease.

In Chile and Argentina, rare cases of person-to-person transmission have occurred among close contacts of a person who was ill with a type of hantavirus called Andes virus.

People at Risk for Hantavirus Infection

Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantavirus is at risk of HPS. Rodent infestation in and around the home remains the primary risk for hantavirus exposure. Even healthy individuals are at risk for HPS infection if exposed to the virus.

Any activity that puts you in contact with rodent droppings, urine, saliva, or nesting materials can place you at risk for infection. Hantavirus is spread when virus-containing particles from rodent urine, droppings, or saliva are stirred into the air. It is important to avoid actions that raise dust, such as sweeping or vacuuming. Infection occurs when you breathe in virus particles.

Potential Risk Activities for Hantavirus Infection

Opening and Cleaning Previously Unused Buildings

Opening or cleaning cabins, sheds, and outbuildings, including barns, garages and storage facilities, that have been closed during the winter is a potential risk for hantavirus infections, especially in rural settings.

Housecleaning Activities

Cleaning in and around your own home can put you at risk if rodents have made it their home too. Many homes can expect to shelter rodents, especially as the weather turns cold. Please see our prevention information on how to properly clean rodent-infested areas.

Work-related Exposure

Construction, utility and pest control workers can be exposed when they work in crawl spaces, under houses, or in vacant buildings that may have a rodent population.

Campers and Hikers

Campers and hikers can also be exposed when they use infested trail shelters or camp in other rodent habitats.

The chance of being exposed to hantavirus is greatest when people work, play, or live in closed spaces where rodents are actively living. However, recent research results show that many people who have become ill with HPS were infected with the disease after continued contact with rodents and/or their droppings. In addition, many people who have contracted HPS reported that they had not seen rodents or their droppings before becoming ill. Therefore, if you live in an area where the carrier rodents, such as the deer mouse, are known to live, take sensible precautions-even if you do not see rodents or their droppings.

https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps/index.html

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since 1993

Andes virus is a type of hantavirus that is found in rodents in South America. People can become ill with Andes virus if they come in contact with infected rodents or their droppings while in South America.

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