Sardinia is Italy’s second largest island and the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It’s also a geographical and political region of Italy, famed for its beautiful beaches and fascinating history.Sardinia is home for 1.6 million people, a diverse and ecologically important wildlife, 1200 miles of stunning coastline, not to mention the proliferation of historical heritage sites. Sardinia is an island with a rich and diverse history, which you’ll know once you spot any one of the nearly 7,000 megalithic stone structures that dot the island’s landscape.
These structures are called nuraghi. They were developed in the Nuragic Age between 1900 and 730 BCE. The nuraghi vary in size and location but share the same basic structure, comprised of an outer tower-like layer, an entrance way, and a round inner chamber — some even have internal staircases.
All irrelevant when stacked up against the military industrial complex and its beneficiaries. Sardinia’s history spans centuries from pre-history to the Byzantine era and the late middle ages to post second world war. Sardinia has survived devastating famines, repelled Napoleonic invasions from its shores and endured slavery when 900 of the inhabitants of a neighbouring islet were kidnapped by Tunisians in 1798. The island was heavily bombarded by Allied forces during WWII prior to the Armistice of Cassibile in 1943 when Italy joined forces with the Allies, causing bitter divisions in Italy among those who turned against Germany and those who remained loyal to Benito Mussolini.
Cagliari is the capital city of the Italian island of Sardinia. It’s known for the hilltop Castello, a medieval walled quarter situated high over the rest of the town. Architectural highlights include the 13th-century Cagliari Cathedral. Housed in a former arsenal, the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Cagliari displays bronze objects, Roman ceramics and artifacts from the Nuragic age to the Byzantine era. An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilisations. Under the buildings of the modern city there is a continuous stratification attesting to human settlement over the course of some five thousand years, from the Neolithic to today. Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas, very damaged by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the often powerfully fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, and, from the hinterland, wheat from the Campidano plain and silver and other ores from the Iglesiente mines. Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1324 to 1848, when Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom (which in 1861 became the Kingdom of Italy). Today the city is a regional cultural, educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments.
Sardinia is one of the most geologically ancient bodies of land in Europe. The island was populated in various waves of immigration from prehistory until recent times.
The first people to settle in Sardinia during the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic came probably from the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula; the Paleolithic colonization of the island is demonstrated by the evidences in Oliena’s Corbeddu Cavein the Mesolithic some populations, particularly from present-day Tuscany, managed to move to northern Sardinia via Corsica. The Neolithic Revolution was introduced in the 6th millennium BC by the Cardial culture coming from the Italian Peninsula. In the mid-Neolithic period, the Ozieri culture, probably of Aegean origin, flourished on the island spreading the hypogeum tombs known as domus de Janas, while the Arzachena culture of Gallura built the first megaliths: circular tombs. In the early 3rd millennium BC, the metallurgy of copper and silver began to develop.
During the late Chalcolithic, the so-called Beaker culture, coming from Continental Europe, appeared in Sardinia. These new people predominantly settled on the west coast, where the majority of the sites attributed to them had been found. The Beaker culture was followed in the early Bronze Age by the Bonnanaro culture which showed both reminiscences of the Beaker and influences by the Polada culture.
Sardinia was at the time at the centre of several commercial routes and it was an important provider of raw materials such as copper and lead, which were pivotal for the manufacture of the time. By controlling the extraction of these raw materials and by commercing them with other countries, the Nuragic civilisation was able to accumulate wealth and reach a level of sophistication that is not only reflected in the complexity of its surviving buildings, but also in its artworks (e.g. the votive bronze statuettes found across Sardinia).
Explore ancient Sardinia in May 2019 with Megalithomania on a unique tour: http://www.megalithomania.co.uk/sardi…. Megalithomania’s Hugh Newman explores the ancient Island of Sardinia in the Mediterranean, and presents evidence of early pyramid construction, cyclopean masonry, massive dolmens, giant’s tombs, Nuraghe Towers, precision relief carvings and sophisticated masonry. He even reveals accounts of giant skeletons in the old records. Hugh featured on the episode of Ancient Aliens called ‘Island of the Giants’ focussed on Sardinia and is leading a tour to Sardinia in 2019. Filmed at the Megalithomania Conference in May 2017 in Glastonbury, UK.
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The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *s(a)rd-, later romanised as sardus(feminine sarda). It makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdntestifies to the name’s existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Plato’s dialogues, Sardinia and its people as well might have been named after Sardò (Σαρδώ), a legendary woman born in Sardis (Σάρδεις), capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. There has also been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples. It is suggested that the name had a religious connotation from its use also as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater “Sardinian Father” (in modern times misunderstood as being “Father Sardus”), as well as being the stem of the adjective “sardonic”. In Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called Ichnusa (the Latinised form of Ancient Greek: Υκνούσσα), Σανδάλιον “Sandal”, Sardinia and Sardó (Σαρδώ).