Suid-Tirool en regte van minderhede

Suid-Tirool is ‘n redelike sterk gemeenskap  en staan bekend as ‘n “aparte provinsie van meerderheid Duitsers” (tans so ongeveer 600000) en volk /gemeenskap.   Hul het eie bestaansreg uitgekap   in die geskiedenisboeke.  Daar is ook heelwat landbouers in die volk teenwoordig, maar bestaan nie net uit een tipe besigheid om te kan oorleef nie.   Hul het ‘n goeie, groeiende en lewendige ekonomie. Hierdie minderheidsvolk is amper vergelykbaar met Katalonië wat ook hul eie potjie wil krap as ‘n volk, nes ons as Afrikaners en Boere .  Op nog ‘n paar ander plekkies in en rondom Italië is dit Venesië wat in 2014 ook roeringe gemaak het om weg te breek.   Die Suid-Tiroolse gemeenskap wil op hul eie wees.  Minority rights in the world – Read more about South Tyrol and self-determination.

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HISTORY

History of the agreements to the people of South Tyrol
Geskiedenis van ooreenkomste wat bereik is vir die unieke provinsie

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Gruber-De Gasperi-Agreement
5 September 1946:  South Tyrol

It is 70 years since the signing of the Treaty of Paris – the agreement regarded as the “Magna Carta” of autonomy. The protection of the special cultural identity of the German-speaking population living in the region Trentino-South Tyrol is guaranteed under the “Gruber-De Gasperi-Agreement”.

This agreement, which is named after the then Austrian Foreign Minister Karl Gruber and the Italian MP Alcide De Gasperi, was signed on this day 70 years ago in the context of the Paris Peace Conference and continues to provide the basis for South Tyrol’s autonomy. Celebrating this anniversary, the Province of South Tyrol organised a festive event in Sigmundskron Castle at which Foreign Minister Kurz and his Italian counterpart Paolo Gentiloni participated on the invitation of the Governor of South Tyrol Arno Kompatscher.

Meeting : 5 September 2016

In his address Sebastian Kurz stressed that “Austria will always assist South Tyrol and support the expansion of autonomy. Among the common challenges currently facing the region are the ongoing flows of migration. We are clearly in favour of a Europe without borders. This holds particularly true for the Brenner Pass. It is therefore of key importance that we have proper protection of the EU’s external borders”.

The Province Governor of South Tyrol Kompatscher stated:   South Tyrol is doing very well today, in particular thanks to autonomy. We are able to keep our traditions, confident in our cultural identity.”   South Tyrol now wants to further expand this model. Soon the provisions governing autonomy will also be applicable to Ladins, who, based on a revision of the relevant statute will be put on exactly the same footing.”

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Summary

A brief summary of historic events: the Treaty of Paris and South Tyrol’s German-speaking minority.

In 1948, the First Autonomy Statute was adopted. However, at the insistence of De Gasperi, South Tyrol and the Trentino were consolidated into one region. The majority of the population in this merged region was thus Italian. In 1956, after Austria had recovered its full sovereignty, it intervened for the first time in Rome. But Italy refused to negotiate, pointing out that the Paris Treaty had been implemented and Austria had lost the right to officially intervene on this issue. In 1960, the then Austrian Foreign Minister Bruno Kreisky presented the South Tyrolean issue to the United Nations. The resolution, subsequently adopted by the UN, stated that the autonomy was to “safeguard the ethnical character and the cultural and economic development” of the South Tyroleans and that Austria indeed had a say in this matter. In spite of this statement adopted by the United Nations, Italy continued to refuse to grant autonomy to the South Tyroleans.

In 1961, the Italian Council of Ministers established the “Neunzehnerkommission” (Commission of the Nineteen) whose membership consisted of seven South Tyroleans, one Ladin and eleven Italians. It was mandated with submitting proposals for a resolution to the Italian government. After more than three years of work, the findings produced by the Commission were handed over to the then Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1964.

In 1972, the Second Autonomy Statute entered into force. Based on this statute, the expanded autonomy provisions largely passed over from the region Trentino-South Tyrol to the two autonomous provinces Trient and Bolzano. But it was to take another 20 years until Rome eventually implemented most of the measures agreed on. The dispute between Austria and Italy was officially ended with the adoption of the “Streitbeilegungserklärung” (dispute resolution statement) in 1992.

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Interessante video’s om van nader te bekyk waar niks afgebrand word nie.
Video oor van die kastele wat in Suid-Tirool voorkom.  Let op die hoë geboue bo in die berge met omringde mure vir beveiliging, asemrowende uitsigte en steeds die afgronde wat diens as verdere beveiliging vorm ‘n eenheid met die natuur.  Die kleur van geboue/mure is baie aardse kleure.   Die pragtige uitsig saam die bevroeëre mere is indrukwekkend.  Landbou gewasse is toe onder ‘n sneeukombers.

South Tyrol / Suid-Tirool / Sud Tirolo
A compilation of Sud Tirolo / South Tyrol, Italy points of interest. The video features several castles, frozen lakes, vineyards, an abandoned hotel with a shady history during World War II (WWII) called the Hotel Paradiso in Cevedale, also featured in a recent documentary series about ways that german was criminals managed to flee to South America. Also featuring the stunning Castel Beseno. Recently rennovated, Castel Beseno is the largest feudal fortress all over the Trentino region. Those travelling from Rovereto to the city of Trento across the Vallagarina valley, will be immediately attracted by the majestic fortress on the hill near to Folgaria. Here on this strategically oh-so important place towers Trentino’s largest fortress, referred to as Castel Beseno. First written documents date back to the 12th century, when the castle still belonged to the counts of Appiano and served as a residence to the aristocratic family Da Beseno. Also featured the Lago di Gioveretto (Zufrittsee), currently frozen and the adjacent dam, as well as local vineyards focused on Chardonnay and Pinot Noir – used for the production of the traditional method – Lagrain, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon as red wines and Sauvignon as a white wine. We also flew over and around the Forst beer factory. Just outside Merano, on the way to the Val Venosta, a complex of buildings perfectly in keeping with their surroundings catches the eye. They are decorated in a graceful, highly tasteful manner and almost blend in with the flourishing local vegetation. Anyone who is curious enough to ask the name of this “village” – because that is what it looks like at first sight – will simply receive the answer “That’s FORST”. It is not called the “beer factory” or the “brewery”, but “FORST”. The name is inherently linked with the local area. It stands for tradition and love for nature, but also striving to ensure that the quality of its products remains consistently high. Traditional and modern values go hand in hand, making positive contributions to each other: this is the guiding concept of FORST. The HD video also features gorgeous mountains such as the Cima Venezia or Veneziaspitze and the Castle of Montani di Sopra in Laces. South Tyrol, an autonomous Italian province created in 1948, was part of the Austro-Hungarian County of Tyrol until 1918 (then known as Deutschsüdtirol and occasionally Mitteltirol. It was annexed by Italy following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I. It has been part of a cross-border joint entity, the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, since 2001. South Tyrol is granted a considerable level of self-government, consisting of a large range of exclusive legislative and executive powers and a fiscal regime that allows the province to retain a large part of most levied taxes, while nevertheless remaining a net contributor to the national budget. As of 2011, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest regions in Italy and the European Union.

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Video van hoe berge en riviere mekaar ontmoet – dis baie waterryk en mere.  Dit is so botsend en teenstrydig met wat in Suid-Afrika ervaar word:  besoedelde water, rewolusie, geweld.

South Tyrol – Water – Mountains – Snow – Ski
The Dolomites, a stunning and unique Italian mountain range in South Tyrol (Sud Tirolo). The Dolomiti are part of Unesco’s World Heritage Sites. They are a mountain range located in NE Italy. They form a part of the Southern Limestone Alps. The Dolomites are nearly equally shared between the provinces of Belluno, South Tyrol and Trentino. There are also mountain groups of similar geological structure that spread over the River Piave to the east – Dolomiti d’Oltrepiave; and far away over the Adige River to the west – Dolomiti di Brenta (Western Dolomites). There is also another smaller group called Piccole Dolomiti (Little Dolomites) located between the provinces of Trentino, Verona and Vicenza (see map). The Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park and many other regional parks are located in the Dolomite.

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AGRICULTURE AND TOURISM

WINES AND APPLES OF THE MOUNTAINS

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Suid-Tirool wynbedryf – verskeie wynroetes – Wines of South Tyrol

Not only people can appreciate the mild Merano climate, but also the weather-sensitive grapes which grow in the amphitheater-shaped natural basin around Merano/Meran. Wine has been produced in South Tyrol/Südtirol since Roman times. This unique setting produces ideal climate and soil conditions, along with tradition and nobility.

The majority of the white and red wines of South Tyrol are produced by cooperative cellars. There are also independent vintners. Over past decades, remarkable examples of cellar architecture have been constructed. Wine cellars and wineries offer guided tours to present interesting information about the growing regions and grape varietals in addition to wine tasting and sales.

South Tyrolean vintners are annually rewarded for their work with the award of the most important wine guide, the Gambero Rosso. The Merano Wine Festival takes place each year in November. Vintners from all over the world present their top wines in the historical Kurhaus.

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Cycling and wine tasting on the South Tyrol Wine route Photo: suedtirol.info   – Such a beautiful country and views.

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Wyne Wines
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Italy’s northernmost province, South Tyrol is set among the jaw-droppingly beautiful mountains of the Dolomites, a secret spot waiting to be discovered by U.S. travelers. Discover more in our new Advertiser Spotlight.

Berge is massief

 

POLITIEK EN SELFBESKIKKING

Die klein gemeenskap wil ook hulself regeer – onafhanklik
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Daar was heelwat spekulasie in verskeie berigte oor Kurz se besoek aan die Suide van Tirool.  Waarskynlik ‘n herdenking van die ooreenkoms wat daar gesluit was.

Kurz visit to South Tyrol – 15 September 2018

Kurz came to Bozen/Bolzano – South Tyrol’s capital, Italy’s last city before you enter Austria – to deliver a speech at the annual congress of the South Tyrolean People’s Party (SVP)

Kurz is at the helm of a centre-right executive with a very strong far-right slant. Vienna is close to the Visegrád group, that widely known cluster of countries lobbying hard to destabilise the European Union. To top it all off, Austria’s foreign minister invited Vladimir Putin to her wedding recently. There’s no doubting in which direction the political breeze is blowing over Vienna.

So, the only newspaper that reported on Kurz‘s visit was Corriere dell’Alto Adige. An editorial by Toni Visentini strongly implied that the politics pursued by Kurz – as well as SVP, by association – pursue a type of Europe where it is OK to say “’Austrians first’, ‘Italians first’, ‘Britain first’, in a context where everyone is free to suddenly say no to commonly agreed rules because one doesn’t like them anymore.” In the same vein, Visentini, a prominent local journalist, also said that “[Vladimir] Putin and [Donald] Trump … do not want a strong and united Continent but would rather deal with many small, disjointed countries – weaker ones. [Europe] is at the risk of imploding from within at the hand of their allies, of whom there are already many in sundry countries.”

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Is dit slegs Spekulasie of het dit te doen met ooreenkomste uit die verlede?

Will it be Austria or Italy or is this only speculation – OR self-determination?

South Tyrol is not a world unto itself. This happy mountain island is at the crossroad between Austria and Italy, as well as western and eastern Europe. As absurd as it may sound, both Africa and Russia are therefore not that far away, with all the global consequences that follow.
On 14 Friday  September  2019 Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz went just across the Italian border for an official trip that was hardly tracked by the media outside Vienna. On the same day, Italy’s interior minister travelled to Vienna, and you just could not escape the news: Matteo Salvini and his Austrian ideological ally, far-right Freedom Party (FPÖ) chairman Heinz-Christian Strache drowned themselves in selfies, all duly posted, writes European affairs commentator Alessio Colonnelli.

The South Tyrolean People’s Party  (SVP) was set up at the end of WWII to promote the rights of German-speaking citizens within a still oppressive Italian State. Bit by bit, over the decades, SVP gained for all South Tyroleans – no ethnic group excluded – a level of autonomy from Rome that has very few parallels in the whole Europe.

Perhaps the Basque Country enjoys about the same degree of self-government, although measurements of this kind are always tricky to establish with absolute certainty. That being said, unemployement at the foot of the Dolomites stands today at an incredibly low 2.9 percent.

The region’s population keeps going up and up, having reached well over half-a-million people. Its capital Bozen/Bolzano has never had so many inhabitants, at almost 108,000 (the majority here are native Italian speakers, in marked contrast with the surrounding territory), with many new immigrants still coming from Campania, Sicily and Puglia (the whole urban area’s demographic is about 170,000, going up.) Fluency in German, a requirement in many jobs, and inflation at 2.4 percent do not put them off. It’s not unusual to be charged an eye-watering €1.30 for a humble espresso.

Last week, Kurz attended the launch of SVP’s electorial campaigne for South Tyrol’s autonomous parliament elections (21 October) and gave a speech insisting on the fact that he will offer South Tyroleans the Austrian passport only with the permission of Rome.

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SELF-DETERMINATION: TYROL PROVINCE IN ITALY

Will South Tyrol get their self-determination?

The end of the First World War brought about new political conditions in Central Europe. The Danube Monarchy, the Austrian multi-state had collapsed and new borders were created. This also affected the Tyrol, which had been united and had belonged to Austria since 1363. Because of the Ceasefire Agreement and the Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919 between the victorious powers of the First World War and the newly created Republic of Austria, South Tyrol became part of the Kingdom of Italy.
The seizure of power in Italy by “Il Duce” Benito Mussolini signalled the start of the fascist Italianisation of the South Tyroleans. Between 1923 and 1925, Italian became the only approved official language, and all place and field names were given newly created Italian names.
As part of the fascist school reforms, in the following years the German language was banned in all schools. From this situation arose so-called “catacomb schools”, which were makeshift and later secret schools in which the children were taught in their German mother tongue. In 1928, factories and large industries started to resettle in the Bolzano area. Only Italian-speaking workers were employed in these new companies. Within just a few years, the population of Bolzano had soared from 30,000 to 120,000 because of Italian immigrants.

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South Tyrol – 2014 – Self-determination is not only a dream – every people do have a right to self-determination to rule themselves

South Tyrol: from secessionist to European dreams

(It was referred to the agreements in the beginning of the article)

The Scottish vote on independence from the UK has shown, among other things, that today’s European democracies are strong enough to withstand a democratic path to secession. It is plausible that, following the Scottish example, other European secessionist movements in the next years will use more consensual instruments to obtain their aims than in the past. This will eventually be the road that the secessionist parties in South Tyrol will follow in order to leave Italy and to join the Austrian Tyrol.

Since the signing of the Treaty of St. Germain in 1919, when Italy annexed the both province of Trentino and the region on the southside of the Brenner Pass from Austria, the history of South Tyrol has always been a struggle over the definition of the rights of German-speaking people, a minority in the Italian state, but a large majority in their specific territory.

On the one side, German-speakers have seen the incorporation of South Tyrol into Italy as a great injustice. On the other, Italian-speakers have considered the Brenner Pass as the natural Italian border. As a consequence, just after the annexation, the Fascist regime tried to assimilate South Tyrol into Italy: the German language was banned from all public offices, state bodies, schools and health establishments. Only documents in Italian were valid. The name Südtirol (or even any reference to Tyrol) was prohibited, with the Italian name – Alto-Adige – enforced as the province’s sole name.

Moreover, many Italians were encouraged to move to Bozen/Bolzano, where Benito Mussolini had created an industrial zone. A scientific debate was even promoted by an Italian geographer, Ettore Tolomei, on how much the German-speakers were authentically Germans, and about the Italian substratum of many words commonly used in South Tyrol.

It is not surprising that, by the end of the Second World War, the German-speaking population asked for a return to Austria. The main proponent of secessionism was the Südtiroler Volkspartei (South Tyrolian People’s Party – SVP), a party established a few days after the end of the war and able to gather consensus from left and right, peasants and entrepreneurs, inhabitants of the towns and of the valleys, that since then has represented the majority of the German-speakers. On the other side, Italian nationalists proposed that the German-speakers wishing to join Austria should be obliged to leave the territory.

Italian policy toward South Tyrol has changed greatly since then. At the Paris Peace Conference held in 1946 and 1947, a great amount of attention was devoted to the province. The Austrian Government was invited to submit a proposal for the resolution of the conflict and, together with the representative of the SVP, it supported the idea that any agreement reached should be internationally supervised.

This is was one of the main points of the subsequent agreement signed on 5 September 1946 by the Italian Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi and the Austrian Foreign Minister Karl Gruber stating that “German-speaking inhabitants of the South Tyrol Province and of the neighbouring bilingual townships of the Trentino Province will be assured a complete equality of rights with the Italian-speaking inhabitants within the framework of special provisions to safeguard the ethnic character and the cultural and economic development of the German-speaking element… The populations of the above-mentioned zones will be granted the exercise of autonomous legislative and executive regional power…”

However, the 1948 Regional Autonomy Statute only marginally achieved those aims: the main legislative power, for example, relied on the regional parliament and not at the provincial level. The emphasis on the regional institutions and their powers implied a major role of the Italian-speakers, due to the fact that the inhabitants of the Province of Trentino were almost exclusively Italian.

It is not surprising that about ten years later, the German-speaking community was out on the streets, protesting. The crisis escalated in 1956 when, for the first time, bombs were set off by secessionists seeking to draw international attention to South Tyrol. Then in 1957 the Italian Government announced the construction of a new neighbourhood in Bozen/Bolzano. German-speakers feared that behind that decision there was the intention to encourage new inflows of Italians and organized a massive demonstration at Sigmundskron (Castel Firmiano) outside Bozen/Bolzano which called for separation of South Tyrol from Trentino and also from Italy.

In this context, in accordance to the De Gasperi-Gruber Agreement, in 1960 Austria referred the dispute with Italy over South Tyrol to the United Nations. Resolution 1497 (XV) asked the two countries to resume negotiations with a view to finding a solution for all differences relating to the implementation of the De Gasperi-Gruber Agreement: the discussion of greater autonomy, or even independence for South Tyrol, was no more an internal Italian affair.

Nine years of negotiations followed. In the late summer of 1969 the Italian and Austrian Governments agreed a so-called “Package” of some 137 measures, most of them designed to revise the 1948 Autonomy Statute to the benefit of South Tyrol and leading to the adoption of the Second Statute of Autonomy in 1972.

An 18-stage Operational Calendar for the Package’s implementation was also negotiated and, at the end of it, Austria would formally declare that the dispute over the fulfilment of the De Gasperi-Gruber Agreement was closed. This declaration effectively pronounced in 1992.

Since then, the autonomy of South Tyrol is based on three factors.

First of all, a change of attitude by the Italian state toward its minorities: the protection of local linguistic minorities is considered a national interest. Moreover, the Italian constitution has officially recognized the legitimacy of the name South Tyrol for a region that Italian-speaking people have always called “Alto Adige” (the upper part of the Italian river Adige).

Secondly, primary legislative powers were transferred from the region (Trentino-Alto Adige/South Tyrol) to the two Provinces of Trentino and South Tyrol in fields such as agriculture and forestry, tourism, protection of the country side, public health and welfare, communications and transport of provincial interest, mining, nursery schools, school buildings and school welfare, public works, employment exchanges, and vocational training.

Finally, secondary legislative powers were granted to the Provinces in areas like teaching in primary and secondary schools, trade and commerce, apprenticeships, promotion of industrial production, hygiene and healthcare, and sport and leisure.

Today the region of Trentino-AltoAdige/South Tyrol has very few powers, and parties are debating on the eventual adoption of a Third Regional Autonomy Statute emphasizing the European dimension and meaning of the autonomist experience of South Tyrol.

In recent years, South Tyrol has been particularly active in the promotion of cross-border co-operation, not only as a way to consolidate the strong economic growth obtained in the last decades that has made South Tyrol the wealthiest territory in Italy (and one of the wealthiest in Europe), but also because Europe is based on a complicated system of power-sharing that opens up new possibilities of influence for spatially limited territories on national policy-making.

At the same time, through cross-border cooperation, South Tyrol has the opportunity to reaffirm its cultural specificity by developing closer relationships with the greater Tyrol region and, more generally, with other German-speaking regions. As a consequence, South Tyrol is one of the founding members of Arge-Alp (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Alp), a body composed of cantons, provinces and regions in the alpine areas of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Italy, and one of the promoters of a Euroregion grouping together both Trentino and Tyrol.

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MUSIC – MUSIEK

HISTORIC – 1809,
Historical parade with bavarian, french, austrian, tyrolean soldiers and marching bands at Schabs-Sciaves in South Tyrol.
Historical music 1809

Großer Festumzug, mit den 33 Musikkapellen des Pinzgauer Blasmusikverbandes, sowie der Bürgerkapelle Brixen (Südtirol) und der Stadtmusikkapelle Wörgl, im Rahmen des Bezirksblasmusikfestes in Maishofen im Salzburger Land.
2018 Music and marshes of South Tyrol

Marching parade of the marching bands at Dobbiaco – South Tyrol, Italy
Marching – Mars parades 2017

Val Gardena – Odles Hutte – Traditional South Tyrol song played live by two young boys at accordeon
Traditional song

 

 

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