Georgia – Soviet Union


Georgia extends southwards from the Caucasian range and eastwards from the Black Sea, which has served as a highway to the rest of the world since antiquity. Georgia contains all the principal landforms like plains, hills, plateaus and mountains. Climate varies across the country. Much of the Black Sea coast has a humid subtropical climate with warm winters and plentiful rainfalls.


The Tskaltubo Spa Resort (or Legends Tskaltubo Spa Resort as it is officially called) is the only original sanatorium currently in use, having reopened in 2011 after an extensive renovation of two of the three grand buildings
Georgia (legends)

Wat se nalatenskap het kommunisme maar veral die vernietigende magsbeheptheid en oorloë vir hierdie land en sy mense ingehou
Georgia’s abandoned sanatoriums (Russia)


Having a semiarid climate, East and South Georgia receive little rainfall and so farmers have to rely on irrigation. The mountains possess a highland climate. People make their living by herding and cutting timber. Some rivers are navigable, while fast-flowing streams provide effective power. Georgia had rich deposits of iron, copper and other minerals although now they are mostly emptied. Deposits of oil seem not to be prominent.


Colchis (western Georgia) and Kartli/Iberia (eastern and southern Georgia) were important regions in the Caucasus area of Eurasia from the Bronze Age of the 15th century BCE. Prospering through agriculture and trade, the region attracted Greek and then Roman colonists. The success of several cities is indicated by the minting of their own coinage. The languages, religion and arts of the region reflect the cosmopolitan political reality through the Hellenistic and Roman periods.


An amazing country – those buildings and nature



The Ancient Kingdom of Colchis: A Legendary Land of Plenty, Conflict, and the Golden Fleece

Anyone familiar with Greek legends has heard of the Colchis Kingdom. It was to here that the band of heroes known as the Argonauts ventured in order to obtain the Golden Fleece, a symbol of authority and kinship, and it is here that Jason betrayed Medea, Princess of Colchis. There is no way of knowing how much of the Tale of the Golden Fleece is fact and how much is fiction, but Colchis was a real life ancient kingdom that had an important influence on the development of the medieval kingdom, and subsequently the modern state, of Georgia. The Greeks portrayed the proto-Georgian state as a wealthy kingdom and a formidable opponent. Perhaps it once was. However, throughout much of history, Colchis was contested by nearly every major historical power.

Colchian Wealth

Colchis is located on the eastern shore of the Black Sea in what today makes up the western half of the country Georgia. People from this kingdom were known as Colchians. Much of the kingdom was built along the banks of the Phasis River (today the Rioni River). The mild climate of the Caucasus plus the extreme fertility of the region helped Colchis develop advanced agricultural techniques much earlier than the rest of Europe. From 1800 – 1500 BC, Colchis was an urbanized center, reveling in Late Bronze Age advancements centuries before the Greeks. In particular, Colchians developed skillful metal working abilities. The bountiful harvest and skilled production of metal goods, combined with their seaside location, helped the Colchians become rich from trade.

Colchis Was a Highly-Contested Territory

Naturally, such a kingdom was a prime target for conquest. Colchis was conquered by the Cimmerians, the Scythians, the Milesian Greeks, the Medians, the Persians, and finally the Romans. In all of this, there is a litany of treacherous and murderous acts. While under the Persians, the Colchians had to send 100 girls and 100 boys every five years to the Persian court.

Eventually, the Colchians managed to throw off the Persian Empire, possibly because it had became too distracted with Alexander the Great (Colchis lay just outside Alexander’s empire). However, the ordinary people quickly became subject to the powerful oligarchs that rose up in the Persians’ absence.

This would ultimately divide the kingdom into myriad little princedoms that fought with each other until they were unified by being conquered by Mithridates the Great (Megas), the King of Pontus and Armenia. But Megas was defeated in war and a battle for succession followed with the sons of his six wives, his mistresses, and his concubines all vying for control. Eventually, the Romans put an end to this struggle by conquering the Caucasus under the brilliant strategy of General Pompey. Under the Romans, the Kingdom of Colchis was renamed Lazicum and the people the Lazs.


Batumi is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the third-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country’s southwest.

The Caucasian republic of Georgia was once a Mecca to holiday makers from Russia and Warsaw Pact countries.


Full documentary about Georgia, this country is located in the Caucasus, along the black sea. It is a country with European vocation and western spirit with great landscape and cultural variety. Georgia. The secret in the Caucasus Georgia has protected its artistic heritage and been able to maintain the vibrancy of its unique traditions.

It has conserved a biodiversity greater than that of some continents, and has a magnetism which draws people back to visit over and over again. Although as small as Switzerland, Georgia is big in all aspects; a progressive nation, European in attitude and Western in spirit; a real Caucasian country with the joy of the Mediterranean. The vast vineyards of the Eastern Region of Kakheti, home to the largest wineries in the nation, are a clear illustration of this passion.

In Georgia, there are a considerable number of grape varieties, more than anywhere else in the world. In Kakheti, almost everything revolves around wine. Proof of this is the XVI century wine cellar in Velistsikhe, in which the traditional “kvevri” are still used: clay barrels buried underground that maintain a constant temperature to ensure optimal fermentation.

Tbilisi (tiflis), founded as a fortress-city in the V century, is the nation’s capital, its largest city and has been admired by famous people such as Leon Tolstoy and Alexander Dumas. Every corner of Tbilisi is quite captivating. Its bewitching spell is cast over the whole of this safe and friendly metropolis in which guests are considered a “gift from God”. At the end of the harvest, colourful folkloric celebrations take place in the wine making areas.

The fertile Valley of Alazani, in the Region of Kakheti, is renowned because of the excellence of its grapes and because it is the source of outstanding wines such as Khindzmarauli and Gurdjani. Sighnaghi is one of the smallest towns in the country, but it has the second longest wall in the world, after China, also known as “the city of love” is also celebrated for its renowned grape harvest. The Tusheti National Reserve is one of the most beautiful areas of Georgia.

Vashlovani National Park, in the south-eastern part of the country, has a semi-desert ecosystem and is an excellent example of the varied bio-diversity to be found in Georgia. One of the 13 Assyrian Holy Fathers who arrived in Georgia in order to strengthen Christianity, David Gareja, is buried here, and on his tomb there is a stone that symbolizes the one that the distinguished Patriarch brought in his journey from the Holy Land. Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park is in the centre of the country and it constitutes 1% of the territory of Georgia.

Borjomi-Kharagauli, surrounded by the magical atmosphere of the Lower Caucasus, is the most visited Park in Georgia and has a large number of recreational activities on offer. In 1830, it was rumoured that springs from the Borjomi-Kharagauli Nature Reserve contained healing properties, and 60 years later, the first bottling plant of the now world-famous Borjomi water, was created.

It is unique because of its naturally mineralized hydro carbonated sodium and therapeutic qualities. Shatili is located on the narrow pass of Arghuni, on the northern slope of the Great Caucasus. Sixty percent of Georgian territory are mountains. There a lots of fantastic opportunities for all kind of people who like nature, who like mountains. There are five peaks in the Caucasus in Georgia over 5000 meters, which gives really great opportunities for the amateur climbers.

Apart from mountaineering these mountains give brilliant opportunities just for those who like nature, so you can do two or three weeks continuous tracks in a totally wild environment, plus there are lots of opportunities for rafting, canoeing, canyoning or any mountain activities. Georgia has two ski resorts: Bakuriani, to the south of Borjomi, at an altitude of 1,700 metres has conditions that are ideal for family skiing. Gudauri, in the Upper Caucasus, at 2,000 metres, has steep slopes which will satisfy the most extreme athletes.




Alexander of Macedon defeated the powerful Persian Empire in the 4th century BCE.

His conquest paved the way for the penetration of the Greek civilization in many areas. The whole Black Sea area might be looked upon as a multicultural region of which the economic systems were ultimately based on the principle of Hellenism – Greeks settled everywhere. An idea of Hellenistic integration is reflected in the Colchian imitation of the gold coins of Alexander. More and more Greeks arrived in Colchis. Colchis was well packed with naval resources and the best sailors but in many lowland places there were terrible marshes, and the Greeks had no special idea about draining those marshlands. Ultimately, Hellenism in Colchis failed because the Hellenic communities first became bilingual and then completely assimilated into the local societies.

The Roman Empire

Starting from the 1st century BCE the Romans administered the old Hellenistic World. They promoted European unity by offering citizenship to their allied kings. Iberian rulers were among them. Roman citizenship was a traditional honorary degree passed from the European principal domains towards the provinces, the countries being tied up formally. A silver cup of the 2nd-3rd century CE records a name of the Iberian (Kartlian) king Flavius Dades (reign dates unknown). Evidently a Roman citizen, he inherited his citizenship from a predecessor upon whom either Vespasian or Domitian had conferred it. In another example, the citizenship of Publicius Agrippa, an Iberian commander-in-chief, derived from a grant of C. Publicius Marcellus, Hadrian’s governor of Syria. Sometimes the high jobs in the Roman army went also to Iberians. For example, the appointment of a capable admiral is recorded in the times of Emperor Otho. His name was Moschus, and obviously, he was born in the Iberian province of Meskheti.–iberia-in-antiquity/

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