Elemente – Elements

Dit maak nie saak watter natuurramp oor jou huis of besigheid gaan nie, dit slaan waar dit die seerste maak.   Afgesien van die finansiële kostes heers daar ‘n tipe van emosionele vrees by mens en dier.      Natuurrampe is soms vernietigend en laat soms ‘n onherstelbare spoor van verwoesting agter.   Bykans alle infrastrukture bly in die slag nadat wind, water of vuur daardeur is.  Droogtes word nog nie hierin aangehaal nie, maar sal bygevoeg word, want dit is ook iets wat ons hele land raak en die implikasie van droogtes raak nie net die boer nie, maar almal, dit het ‘n invloed op watergebruik en verbruik sowel as mineraal eksplorasies wat heelwat water opslurp en besoedel.

image


Waar en wanneer het die rampe plaasgevind:

Gauteng, Mpumalanga en Noordelike Provinsies het tussen 4/2/2000 en 14/2/2000
geweldige oorstromings gehad. Dit was selfs erger as die Domoina vloede in 1984 wat in verskeie provinsies plaasgevind het.

Wat was die omvang van die ramp: Die gebiede in Mpumalanga en die Noordelike provinsie het die ergste deurgeloop.
Strukturele verliese van oor die R1 Biljoen het plaasgevind, en na raming is sowat 50
oeste verwoes. In die periode is 630 mm op Graskop gemeet , 612 mm op Levubu, en
593 mm op Tzaneen (Grenshoek). Verskeie damme het oorspoel en talle plaasdamme is
vernietig.

Die effek wat die ramp op mens en dier gehad het: Daar is in die omgewing van 50 mense dood. Die Krugerwildtuin was totaal oorstroom en het vir 2 weke toegemaak. Toeriste is uitgevlieg uit die gebied, want die paaie was heeltemal onbegaanbaar. Baie plaasdiere en wild het verdrink. Sommige diere was op eilande vasgekeer, met tollende water om hulle. Waar moontlik, is die diere gered. Die mense wie se huise vernietig is deur die oorstromings, is in hospitale en skole gehuisves.  Spesiale massa- grafte is gemaak om die verdrinkte diere te begrawe, sodat daar nie enige peste uitbreek nie.

1969 – Die Bolandse aardbewing:

In die nag van 29 September 1969 word die grootste aardbewing-skade in menseheugenis in Suid-Afrika aangerig toe veral die dorpe Ceres, Wolseley en Tulbagh erg verniel word deur ’n aardskok op die sogenaamde Worcester-breuk in die aardkors.  Honderde huise word in bouvalle verander en moet gesloop en herbou word. Elf mense is op die omringende plase dood waar swak geboude tuistes ineengestort het.

1981 – Die vloedramp op Laingsburg

Skielike vloede is die vernaamste oorsaak van sterftes wat met donderstorms verbind  word. Een van die ergste oorstromings in die Suid-Afrikaanse geskiedenis vind op 23  Januarie 1981 plaas toe skielike vloedwaters onverwags ’n groot deel van die Karoodorp
Laingsburg tref en mense en huise meedoënloos meesleur. Altesaam 104 mense  verdrink, 185 huise, die ouetehuis en 23 kantore word verwoes en slegs 21 huise bly
staan.   Die rede vir die groot skade en lewensverlies is stellig dat mense niksvermoedend die dorp in die meestal droërige loop van die Buffelsrivier gebou het sonder om die gevaar van ’n skielike vloed te besef.

1984 – Die sikloon Domoina

Meer as 200 mense sterf toe die sikloon Domoina in Februarie 1984 verwoesting saai in
Swaziland, Mosambiek, die teenswoordige Mpumalanga en in die noordooste van KwaZulu-Natal. Geweldige skade word aan brûe en suikerrietplantasies aangerig. Die hoogste aangetekende reënval op een dag op ’n enkele plek in Suid-Afrika word
gemeet: 597 mm by die St. Lucia meer.

http://www.ip-ig.co.za/downloads/Rampe%20in%20Suid-Afrika.pdf

******

TORNADO

More than 20 people were killed and at least 400 injured when a tornado hit Albertynesville, African township 20 miles from Johannesburg on Sunday. Fifteen people were killed by lightning on the Witwaterrand and in Pretoria Convoys of ambulances and cars raced to hospitals more than 400 people. After the tornado struck, scenes at Albertynesville and Baragwanath hospital remained chaotic. Police, doctors and volunteer helpers were digging among the rubble in the stricken township, extricating the injured one helper said. “We are not worrying about the dead. We are trying to save the injured. We have no idea how many are killed.” The tornado covered a limited area, striking several small towns west of Johannesburg. Although there was some damage to houses in these towns, there were no serious casualties outside Albertynesville.

TORNADO’S

Tornado history in South Africa

Occurrence in South Africa

A Tornado can occur basically anywhere where a thunderstorm is possible. From an analysis of the occurrence of South African tornadoes it became clear that most of them have been observed in Gauteng, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal (along a line from Pietermaritzburg to Ladysmith) and the northern region of the former Transkei. Some 65% of the South African tornadoes are classified as F0 or F1 (light damage), while more than 90% are classified as F0, F1 or F2 (considerable damage) or less. – SAWS. Although the resulting database contains descriptions of over 180 tornadoes that have occurred since 1905. It is evident that the data prior to 1948 were erratic and several tornadoes occurring before this period have undoubtedly gone unrecorded. The period between 1948 and 1991 yields records of more than 160 tornadoes, with an average occurrence of four tornadoes per year.  So, let’s start walking down memory lane as we go way back to 1905…

 

Tornado history in South Africa

 

Occurrence in South Africa

A Tornado can occur basically anywhere where a thunderstorm is possible. From an analysis of the occurrence of South African tornadoes it became clear that most of them have been observed in Gauteng, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal (along a line from Pietermaritzburg to Ladysmith) and the northern region of the former Transkei. Some 65% of the South African tornadoes are classified as F0 or F1 (light damage), while more than 90% are classified as F0, F1 or F2 (considerable damage) or less. – SAWS. Although the resulting database contains descriptions of over 180 tornadoes that have occurred since 1905. It is evident that the data prior to 1948 were erratic and several tornadoes occurring before this period have undoubtedly gone unrecorded. The period between 1948 and 1991 yields records of more than 160 tornadoes, with an average occurrence of four tornadoes per year.  So, let’s start walking down memory lane as we go way back to 1905…

 

Tornado History between 1900-1910

Rietvlei (mooi rivier), 3 December 1905

*No information. Class F2

 

Graaff-Reinet, Eastern Cape 8 January 1907

*No information. Class F1

 

Jansenville, Eastern Cape 8 January 1907

*No information. Class F1

 

Tornado History between 1910-1920

Bloemfontein, Free State 19 September 1913

*No information. Class F0

 

Fort Cox, Eastern Cape 30 May 1916

*No information. Class F3

 

Tornado History between 1920-1930

Stutterheim, Eastern Cape 30 December 1920

*No information. Class F2

 

Richmond, KwaZulu-Natal 14 January 1922

*No information. Class F2

 

Cape St Lucia, KwaZulu-Natal 9 September 1923

*No information. Class F2

 

Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal 1 December 1923

*No information. Class F2

 

Kokstad, KwaZulu-Natal 6 January 1925

*No information. Class F1

 

Malmesbury, Western Cape 29 September 1925

*No information. Class F2

 

Alberton, Gauteng October 1926

*No information. Class unknown

 

Baragwanth (Alberton), Gauteng 6 October 1929

A tornado touched down which left an 18-km trail devastation leading up to Booysens and Turfontein.

 

Tornado History between 1940-1950

Dalton, KwaZulu-Natal 16 March 1948

*No information. Class F1

 

Roodepoort, Gauteng 26 November 1948.

700 homes were wrecked when this tornado struck the suburb of Roodepoort. Four people were killed, 100 people were injured and damages of almost R150-million were reported. The tornado left a path of destruction 64 km long, with the tornado touching down 15 times in different areas.

Zastron, Free State 26 November 1948

This tornado happened over rural farmland. No reports of damage or any fatalities.

 

Vereeniging, Gauteng 17 December 1948

*No information. Class F1

 

Warden, Free State 10 May 1949

*No information. Class 1

 

Bronkhorstspruit, Gauteng 10 May 1949

*No information. Class F2

 

Ficksburg, Free State 23 September 1949

*No information. Class 1

 

Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal 27 September 1949

*No information. Class F1

 

Kingsley, KwaZulu-Natal 28 September 1949

*No information. Class F1

 

Boshof, Free State 3 October 1949

*No information. Class 1

 

Pretoria, Gauteng 17 November 1949

*No information. Class F3

 

Tornado History between 1950-1960

Elandskop, KwaZulu-Natal 21 January 1950

*No information. Class F2

 

Hammerdale, KwaZulu-Natal 28 January 1951

*No information. Class F2

 

Paynesville, Gauteng 2 December 1952

A deadly tornado outbreak from 30 November 1952 to 2 December 1952. 11 Fatalities was recorded on this day in Paynesville.

 

Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal 10 January 1955

*No information. Class F2

 

Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal 12 April 1956

*No information. Class F1

 

Donnybrooke, KwaZulu-Natal 25 December 1956

*No information. Class F1

 

Tornado History between 1960-1970


Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal 2 December 1960

*No information. Class F2

 

Nortingham Road, KwaZulu-Natal 6 December 1960

*No information. Class F2

 

Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal 17 November 1961

*No information. Class F1

 

Drummond, KwaZulu-Natal 23 November 1961

*No information. Class F3

 

East Worlds, KwaZulu-Natal 8 March 1962

*No information. Class F2

 

Deneysville, Free State15 January 1964

*No information. Class F2

 

Kempton Park, Gauteng 31 January 1964

*No information. Class F2

 

Pretoria Gardens, Gauteng 6 November 1964

*No information. Class F2

 

Pretoria, Gauteng 26 November 1964

*No information. Class F2

 

Villiers, Free State 28 December 1964

*No information. Class F2

 

Randfontein, Gauteng 31 May 1967

A deadly tornado touched down and had a 30-km path. Two people were killed and up to 100 people were injured.

 

Tornado History between 1970-1980

Deneysville, Free State 6 December 1970

*No information. Class F2

 

Kokstad, KwaZulu-Natal 4 January 1973

*No information. Class F2

Trompsburg, Free State 5 November 1976

A long-lived tornado in 1976 travelled 175km from Hanover in the Northern Cape to Trompsburg in the Free State. Up to 5 fatalities was recorded on this day.

 

Villiers, Free State 16 October 1978

*No information. Class F2

 

Impendhle, KwaZulu-Natal 4 January 1979

*No information. Class F2

 

Tornado History between 1980-1990

 

Welkom, Free State 10 October 1982

*No information. Class F2

 

Mpendle, KwaZulu-Natal 24 November 1983

*No information. Class F3

 

Weener, KwaZulu-Natal 17 December 1983

*No information. Class F1

 

Kestel, Free State 31 August 1984

*No information. Class F2

 

Impendhle, KwaZulu-Natal 4 January 1985

*No information. Class F2

 

Nortingham Road, KwaZulu-Natal 20 December 1985

*No information. Class F2

 

Piet Retief, Mpumalanga 27 December 1986

One person was killed in this event but R12 Million in damages was reported.

 

Senekal, Free State 15 September 1988

With a 100-km path length, which lead predominantly over farmland. killing two children and causing the failure of six Eskom 765 kV transmission-line towers.

Tornado History between 1990-2000

Welkom, Free State 20 March 1990

Multi-vortex tornado races through the suburbs of Welkom with a 240 km long severe storm front and a width of up to 1.7 km. Proved to be the most devastating (in monetary terms) in South Africa’s history. Over 4000 homes were destroyed with up to R230 Million in damages reported.


Utrecht, KwaZulu-Natal 3 November 1993

This tornado devastated a 200m-wide, 35km-long stretch of rural Utrecht and Glencoe. Forty people lost their homes, and seven were killed.

 

Harrismith, Free State 15 November 1998

This tornado left a destroyed over 750 homes over a nine-kilometer path. It caused damage to a number of telephone and power lines. Reports indicate 15 people were injured. The Harrismith tornado has been described as the ‘most spectacular’ in our country.


Umtata, Eastern Cape 15 December 1998

Van Niekerk and Sampson (1999) reported that a wall of a disused bus station collapsed killing 11 people. Trees in Umtata’s main street were uprooted, walls were blown down and roofs were torn off. Several buildings were badly damaged and some reports stated that 1 500 buildings were damaged in a 70-km radius around Umtata. The damage survey by Van Niekerk and Sampson (1999) was based on newspaper reports and photographs taken by the public. No aerial survey was done. Due to the fact that the main damage was limited to a few hundred metres with a path length of 8 to 10 km only, the classification was F2 (Van Niekerk and Sampson, 1999).

 

Umtata, Eastern Cape 11 January 1999

Category unknown. Large amounts of damage were caused including damage to the hospital. Nelson Mandela, previous president of South Africa was in a pharmacy when the tornado hit, and was protected by his bodyguards while lying on the floor. The pharmacy was also damaged, but Mandela was not injured. On this day 11 fatalities were reported with 150 injuries.

 

Mount Ayliff, Eastern Cape 18 January 1999

A violent F4 tornado ripped through areas surrounding Mount Ayliff and Tabankulu. The majority of towns were destroyed, with 95 percent of residents left homeless. Numerous vehicles were thrown significant distances by the storm, with one travelling almost 500 meters. This is largely considered the deadliest tornado in our history. 25 people were killed and approximately 500 others injured.


Tornado History between 2000-2010

Mpumalanga Tornado outbreak, 9 September 2002

It is stated that there was a total of 4 tornadoes during the day. This was due to a strong line of storms. Some buildings were completely flattened and 2 fatalities were reported.

 

Dullstroom, Mpumalanga 1 August 2006

Several homes damaged, roof a high school completely removed. Estimated to be strong F1, possibly F2 with 9 injuries reported.

 

Vryheid, KwaZulu-Natal 20 October 2006

Rural huts destroyed on a farm 15 km east of the town. Child almost ‘taken up’ into tornado. Path estimated to be 4 km long. Estimated F1.

 

Tornado History between 2010-2017

Zastron, Free State 24 October 2010

Damage caused by a Tornado in the Zastron district on the 24 October 2010.

Ficksburg, Free State 3 October 2011

A nine-year-old boy was killed in the town early on Monday when the wall of his house collapsed on him during the storm, police spokesperson Captain Phumelelo Dlamini said.

The tornado hit around 02:00 and destroyed Jama Mokhekhe’s house, seriously injuring other members of his family. Another 42 people were injured and 122 RDP houses and shacks in the area destroyed.

 

Duduza near Nigel, Gauteng 3 October 2011

Hundreds of people were left homeless when a tornado tore through the Duduza township near Nigel, east of Johannesburg, on Sunday, paramedics said. “One hundred and five individuals were injured.

 

Bronkhorstspruit, Mpumalanga 13 November 2011

Minimal damage as the tornado touched down in open fields.

 

Bethlehem, Free State 23 June 2012

A woman was also killed when the tornado tore through four shacks on a farm outside Bethlehem. About 27 others were injured.

Deneysville, Free State 23 June 2012

At 18h45 (Saturday, 23rd June) NSRI Vaal Dam volunteer rescue duty crew and the Emergency Services were activated following a tornado that ripped through parts of the Free State, Deneysville and the Vaal Dam area causing widespread damage as it spread across land. 1 Fatality and 5 injuries reported.

Queenstown, Eastern Cape 19 September 2013

Not much information could be found. Up to 4 fatalities was reported.

 

Vryheid, KwaZulu-Natal 22 November 2014

No damage reported as the tornado touched down over farmland.

Belfast, Mpumalanga 4 February 2016

A small tornado forming mostly over farmland.

 

 

Tembisa, Gauteng 26 July 2016

Three people have been injured after a roof collapsed at the Phumulani Mall in Tembisa, Gauteng. Ntladi said the unusual weather phenomenon happened at 15;40 and only lasted about 20 seconds.

 

Ennerdal, Gauteng 15 November 2016

The twister touched down between 6pm and 7pm, leaving one person injured and damaging over 50 houses.

Grootvlei, Mpumalanga 15 November 2016

The power station stated on Wednesday that there have been no reports of any damage to property. Police say no casualties have been reported so far.

Standerton, Mpumalanga 10 December 2016

Not a strong tornado with no damage reported.

 

Secunda, Mpumalanga 29 January 2017

Small tornado touched down over the town of Secunda causing minor damage.

 

Photo’s and video material
https://stormreportsa.co.za/tornado-history-south-africa/

Various storms, photos and videos
https://www.thedailyvox.co.za/history-tornadoes-south-africa/

 

 

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Hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons are all types of tropical storms. But what’s the difference between them?
 
 
 
When they reach populated areas, they usually bring very strong winds and rain which can cause a lot of damage.
 
Hurricanes are tropical storms that form over the North Atlantic Ocean and Northeast Pacific.
 
Cyclones are formed over the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.
 
Typhoons are formed over the Northwest Pacific Ocean.
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