Grondwet / Constitution

Suid-Afrika se Grondwet is in 1996 bekragtig deur die Grondwethof.  Verskeie artikels rakende die verkryging van Selfbeskikking is deur Grondwethofregters ooreenkomstig internasionale reg bepaal en uitspraak is gelewer.  Elke volk het die reg tot hul eie soewereine gebied – Selfbeskikking.  Sedert 1960 het meer as 25 minderhede in Afrika reeds hul eie onafhanklike gebiede en regerings bekom.  Photo:  Copy of the document that certified the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa in 1996.   In terms of their verdict that is the route to go forward with people’s right to self-determination.  All peoples in South Africa do have an international right to self-determination to rule themselves on their own land (independently).

GRONDWETHOFUITSPRAAK.png

 

GRONDWETHOF / CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

Bekragtiging van die Grondwet van Suid-Afrika, 1996  (CCT 23/96) [1996] ZACC 26; 1996 (4) SA 744 (CC); 1996 (10) BCLR 1253 (CC) (6 September 1996)

Tydens die sertifisering van die Grondwet en veral gegrond op Selfbeskikking vir ons as volk (Artikel 235) asook verdere verduidelikings van Artikel 235 van die Grondwet van SA van 1996, was daar deur die Grondwethof beslis dat die besluit nie by die Parlement berus nie, dat dit ook nie afhang van voorgeskrewe/vereiste wetgewing nie, maar dat sesessie (selfbeskikking: soewereine gebied) ‘n internasionale reg is, wat deur die Grondwethof in 1996 erken is, en dat Selfbeskikking vir ‘n volk bepaal word deur die internasionale reg se vereistes om dit te verkry.

Bekragtiging Grondwet / Sertification Constitution

Certification of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (CCT 23/96) [1996] ZACC 26; 1996 (4) SA 744 (CC); 1996 (10) BCLR 1253 (CC) (6 September 1996)

[217] A related contention was that the right to self-determination, including the right to secession, is internationally accepted as a right, and thus should not be subjected to the discretion of Parliament. Thus, if a dispute reached this Court, it should be decided according to objective criteria as determined by international law, and not by whether or not Parliament has passed the requisite legislation.

Bekragtiging van Grondwet rakende Selfbeskikking

 

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IN DIE GRONDWET

Artikel 235 op Selfbeskikking

Die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking as geheel se reg op selfbeskikking, soos in hierdie Grondwet vergestalt, belet nie, binne die raamwerk van dié reg, die erkenning nie van die konsep van die reg van enige gemeenskap wat ʼn gemeenskaplike kultuur- en taalerfenis deel, op selfbeskikking binne ʼn territoriale entiteit in die Republiek of op enige ander wyse, soos deur nasionale wetgewing bepaal.

Artikel 234 op Handves van Menseregte

Ten einde die kultuur van demokrasie deur die Grondwet ingestel, te versterk, kan die Parlement Handveste van Regte aanneem wat met die bepalings van die Grondwet bestaanbaar is.

Artikel 233 Toepassing van volkereg

By die uitleg van wetgewing moet elke hof aan enige redelike uitleg van die wetgewing wat met die volkereg bestaanbaar is, voorkeur gee bo enige alternatiewe uitleg wat met die volkereg onbestaanbaar is.


IN THE CONSTITUTION

Article 235  Self-determination

The right of the South African people as a whole to self-determination, as manifested in this Constitution, does not preclude, within the framework of this right, recognition of the notion of the right of self-determination of any community sharing a common cultural and language heritage, within a territorial entity in the Republic or in any other way, determined by national legislation.

Article 235  Charters of Rights
In order to deepen the culture of democracy established by the Constitution, Parliament may adopt Charters of Rights consistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

Article 233  Application of international law
When interpreting any legislation, every court must prefer any reasonable interpretation of the legislation that is consistent with international law over any alternative interpretation that is inconsistent with international law.

Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika
Grondwet van RSA

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa

.

Africa and recognised

South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011 after years of civil war, but violence continues to ravage the world’s newest country.   Eritrea is located in Eastern Africa and is home to 6 million people. The nation was formed on May 24, 1993.

Newly Independent states

.

Africa and her states

Africa is the second largest continent in the world, both by land area and population. By land area, Algeria is the largest country on the continent. By population, Nigeria is the largest. Africa has a rich diversity of languages and ethnicities with an estimated 1250-3000 languages spoken across the continent. Some of Africa’s largest cities include Cairo, Khartoum, Accra, Johannesburg, Casablanca, Lagos, Nairobi, and Algiers.

Fully-Recognized Countries of Africa

Rank Country

1    Algeria
2    Angola
3    Benin
4    Botswana
5    Burkina Faso
6    Burundi
7    Cameroon
8    Cape Verde
9    Central African Republic
10  Chad
11  Comoros
12  Democratic Republic of the Congo
13  Republic of the Congo
14  Djibouti
15  Egypt
16  Equatorial Guinea
17  Eritrea
18  Ethiopia
19  Gabon
20  Gambia
21  Ghana
22  Guinea
23  Guinea-Bissau
24  Ivory Coast
25  Kenya
26  Lesotho
27  Liberia
28  Libya
29  Madagascar
30  Malawi
31  Mali
32  Mauritania
33  Mauritius
34  Morocco
35  Mozambique
36  Namibia
37  Niger
38  Nigeria
39  Rwanda
40  Sao Tome and Principe
41  Senegal
42  Seychelles
43  Sierra Leone
44  Somalia
45  South Africa
46  South Sudan
47  Sudan
48  Swaziland
49  Tanzania
50  Togo
51  Tunisia
52  Uganda
53  Zambia
54  Zimbabwe

AFRICAN STATES AND INDEPENDENCE

Independent Countries In Africa

African States

List of African countries and their Independence Days, colonial names and former colonizers.
COUNTRY INDEPENDENCE DAY COLONIAL NAME COLONIAL RULERS
Algeria July 5th, 1962 France
Angola November 11th; 1975 Portugal
Benin August 1st; 1960 French
Botswana September 30th, 1966 Britain
Burkina Faso August 5; 1960 France
Burundi July 1st; 1962 Belgium
Cameroon January 1st; 1960 French-administered UN trusteeship
Cape Verde July 5th; 1975 Portugal
C.A.R August 13th; 1960 France
Chad August 11th, 1960 France
Comoros July 6th; 1975 France
Congo August 15th; 1960 France
Congo DR June 30th; 1960 Belgium
Cote d’Ivoire August 7th; 1960 France
Djibouti June 27th; 1977 France
Egypt February 28th, 1922 Britain
Eq Guinea October 12; 1968 Spain
Eritrea May 24th; 1993 Ethiopia
Ethiopia over 2000 years,
Never colonized (formerly)
Kingdom of Aksum —
Gabon August 17th; 1960 France
Gambia February 18th; 1965 Britain
Ghana 6 March 1957 Gold Coast Britain
Guinea October 2nd; 1958 France
Guinea Bissau 10 September 1974
24 September 1973 Portugal
Kenya December 12th, 1963 Britain
Lesotho October 4th; 1966 Britain
Liberia July 26th; 1847 American colonization Society
Libya December 24; 1951 Italy
Madagascar June 26th; 1960 France
Malawi July 6th; 1964 Britain
Mali September 22nd; 1960 France
Mauritania November 28th; 1960 France
Mauritius March 12th, 1968 Britain
Morocco March 2nd; 1956 France
Mozambique June 25th; 1975 Portugal
Namibia March 21st; 1990 South African mandate
Niger August 3rd; 1960 France
Nigeria October 1st, 1960 Britain
Rwanda July 1st; 1962 Belgium administered UN trusteeship
SaoTomePrincipe July 12th; 1975 Portugal
Senegal April 4th; 1960 France
Seychelles June 29th; 1976 Britain
Sierra Leone April 27th; 1961 Britain
Somalia July 1st; 1960 British Somaliland
Italian Somaliland Britain
Italy
South Africa 11 December 1931,
April 1994(end of apatheid) Union of South Africa Britain
Sudan January 1st; 1956 Egypt, Britain
Swaziland September 6th; 1968 Britain
Tanzania April 26th, 1964 Britain
Togo April 27th; 1960 French administered UN trusteeship
Tunisia March 20th; 1956 France
Uganda October 9th; 1962 Britain
Zambia October 24th; 1964 Britain

Zimbabwe April 18th; 1980 Britain

 

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3 gedagtes oor “Grondwet / Constitution”

  1. “Sedert 1990 het meer as 25 minderhede in Afrika reeds hul eie onafhanklike gebiede en regerings bekom.” Sal u asb so vriendelik wees en my van die name van diè 25 nuwe state te laat kry asb en ook indien montkik ‘n kaart wasrop dit aangedui is?

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  2. Dit was vanaf 1960, tikfout. Jammer daaroor. Daar is heelwat lande, ek het die lande bygevoeg Danie. Soos opgemerk daar is nie opgedateerde lyste op die stadium nie. Daar is minderhede soos Suid-Sudan wat ook in 2011 hul onafhanklikheid gekry het en nie by die lyste is, het dit bygevoeg.

    Sodra daar volledige lyste is, sal dit ook geplaas word. Biafra – is onseker hoe ver hulle is en Wes-Sahara – weet nie of hul referendum al plaasgevind het nie.

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