Two independent Boer republics


The two independent Boer Republics came under British control – the Orange River Colony and Transvaal Colony. Today, these areas and others make up the Republic of South Africa. To learn more about the Boer Wars and their place in South African history today, watch independent scholar Martin Meredith’s excellent lecture “Diamonds, Gold and War: The British, the Boers and the Making of South Africa,” presented at the Library of Congress in 2007.

South Africa, Transvaal Colony, Orange River Colony, Cape Colony, Natal, Rhodesia and adjoining Territory. R.S. Peale, 1902. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

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Die burgers, die Boere van die twee onafhanklike Boererepublieke, het gegly en families het swaar gekry in Britse konsentrasiekampe en onnodig gely.  Die Boererepublieke het onder Britse beheer gekom en die Oranjerivierkolonie en Transvaalkolonie geword.

Heelwat ander gebiede (swartes en khoi san) is reeds as aparte gebiede, reservate en kroongebiede opgeneem in die Britse ryk.   Dit word in die Shepstone beleid genoem sowel as die 1910 grondwet van Unie van Suid-Afrika.

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Lees ook meer oor die republieke

Diamonds/Diamante – Gold/Goud -MINERALS

Diamonds, Gold and War: The British, the Boers and the Making of South Africa

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The Orange Free State and the Transvaal (officially the South African Republic) were independent countries in southern Africa in the 19th century established largely by Dutch/Afrikaans-speaking settlers known as the Boers.    The Boers of the 19th century were pastoral and religiously-oriented, and they excluded indigenous people from participation in the church and state. Together, these countries were referred to as the Boer Republics, which lasted some fifty years until 1902, when they were defeated in the Boer Wars.

Is of the opinion, the Boers did not interfere with black and khoi san tribes or their culture, power and control. They may have excluded indigenous black and khoi san tribes from participating in church and state in the two Republican territories, but in 1854 these territories (for khoi san and blacks) were declared as reserves and British Crown territories under British control (Shepstone policy).

The state of affairs had absolutely nothing to do with the two Boer republics, for the blacks and khoi san then chose all their own leaders. Most of the reserves areas were changed in 1961 to Homelands for full independence, where these ethnic tribes could elect their own leaders with official voting rights. After 1994, most of the Homelands and Crowned Areas were transformed (with Land Claims legislation, White papers and Hansards) into Trust Areas or registered CPA areas in the ANC legislation as well as the 1996 Constitution. The different tribes still remain separate from each other, as in 1961 and 1854. The impression is inflated via media that black and khoi san tribes have no territories, which is not the truth.  Landclaims are huge with financial assistance after 1994 and in Hansards available.

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Die Oranje-Vrystaat en Transvaal (amptelik die Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek) was in die 19de eeu onafhanklike lande in suidelike Afrika wat grotendeels deur Nederlanders / Afrikaanssprekende setlaars, bekend as die Boere, gestig is. Die Boere van die 19de eeu was pastoraal en godsdienstig gerig.

Hulle het dalk inheemse swart en khoi san stamme uitgesluit van deelname aan die kerk en staat in die gebiede Republieke, maar in 1854 is hierdie gebiede as reservate en britse kroongebiede verklaar onder Britse beheer (Shepstone beleid) nadat anneksasies plaasgevind het.

Die toedrag van sake het absoluut niks met die twee Boere republieke te doen gehad nie, want die swart en khoi san het toe al hul eie leiers gekies.

Meeste van die reservaat (swart volkere) gebiede is in 1961 verander na Tuislande vir volle onafhanklikheid, waar hierdie etniese stamme hul eie leiers met amptelike stemreg kon kies.

Na 1994 is meeste van die Tuislande en Brits Gekroonde gebiede omskep (met Grondeis wetgewings) in Trustgebiede of geregistreerde CPA gebiede in die ANC wetgewing asook die 1996 Grondwet opgeneem.    Die stamme bly steeds apart van mekaar, nes 1961 en 1854.   Die indruk word via media opgeblaas dat swart en khoi san stamme geen grondgebiede het nie, wat nie die waarheid is nie.  Miljoene hektaar grond is onder CPA of Trustgebiede wetgewings oorhandig.

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A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Orange Free State

The Orange Free State was a Boer republic in southern Africa. The Boers, of Dutch ancestry, had settled in the area. The 1854 Bloemfontein Convention recognized the independence of the Orange Free State, which was located between the Orange and the Vaal Rivers.

Areas were called Boer Republics.

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In 1867 diamonds were discovered in the Orange Free State and by 1870 there were sufficient reserves of diamonds to stimulate a “rush” of several thousand fortune hunters.

Other important Orange Free State exports that gained a wider world market during the 1860s were ostrich feathers and ivory, obtained by hunting the region’s elephants. The expanding commercial trade prompted the United States to complete its first international agreement with the Orange Free State, the Convention of Friendship and Commerce and Extradition of 1871, and also recognize the young republic.

https://opil.ouplaw.com/browse?pageSize=20&prd=MPEIPRO&sort=title&psj_0=a2a8c14f-4098-4e7f-a9c7-42688b50dc64

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When the war started, the British empire occupied the capital of Bloemfontein in 1900.

The 1902 Peace of Vereeniging, which ended the Boer Wars, annexed the Orange Free State to the British Empire.

1871

The first known act of recognition between the United States and the Republic of the Orange Free State occurred in 1871 when plenipotentiaries for the two states signed a Convention of Friendship and Commerce and Extradition on December 22, 1871.

The first U.S. Consul assigned to the Orange Free State was Ernst Richard Landgraf, who was appointed as U.S. Consular Agent to Bloemfontein on December 16, 1891.   The U.S. consular agents remained posted at Bloemfontein after its incorporation into the British Empire until the post was closed by agency order on November 30, 1928.

It was on 22 December 1871, the United States signed a Convention of Friendship and Commerce and Extradition with the Orange Free State in Bloemfonten, Orange Free State.

The convention was negotiated and signed by U.S. Special Agent Willard W. Edgcomb, who served at the time as American Consul at the Cape of Good Hope, and the government secretary of the Orange Free State, Friedrich Kaufman Höhne. This convention was denounced on January 4, 1895 by the Government of Orange Free State.

On 28 October  1896, U.S. Secretary of State Richard Olney and the Consul General of the Orange Free State in the United States Charles D. Pierce signed an Extradition Treaty in Washington, D.C.

The Orange Free State ceased to exist as an independent, sovereign state in 1902 as a result of the process of colonization that carved up much of the African continent into areas of European empire. There were several states like the Orange Free State, with which the United States had treaties or sometimes even diplomatic relations, that were incorporated into another state’s overseas empire.

William M. Malloy, Treaties, Conventions, International Acts, Protocols, and Agreements Between The United States of American and Other Powers, 1776-1909 (Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1910).

https://history.state.gov/countries/orange-free-state

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The Boer Wars were fought from 1880 to 1881 and from 1899 to 1902.

When fighting the more powerful and numerically superior British forces, the Boers employed a non-conventional, highly mobile style of fighting from which the word “commando” has its origins.

Nevertheless, the map above, which appeared in the Chicago Record newspaper during the conflict, illustrates the Boer Republics’ precarious strategic situation.

The republics were landlocked and surrounded by rival groups: Portuguese East Africa and the then-autonomous Swaziland to the east, and British colonial possessions to the north, south, and west.   The map’s creators stated that “news of the war between Great Britain and the Dutch Republics of South Africa is received by cable daily from our correspondents at Cape Town, Pretoria, and Durban, Natal.

It is the only Chicago paper which has its own correspondents at the seat of war.” At the time, undersea cables were the conduit of high-speed global communication. The map is a testament to both the political situation in 1899 in southern Africa and to how newspaper reporters gathered information in the field and communicated to a home base, which sometimes was on a different continent.

Dutch colonization of the region has its roots in the Dutch East India Company, which first established the Dutch Cape Colony, centered on the Cape of Good Hope and present-day Cape Town, in the 17th century as a re-supply port for trading vessels.

In 1795, British forces invaded and took control, thereby establishing the Cape Colony under British dominion. By this time, some Dutch settlers and others (at this point, referred to as Boers) had migrated further inland to maintain their pastoral livelihoods.

Beginning in the 1830s, a greater wave of migration, known as the “Great Trek,” saw thousands of Boers migrating eastward, further from the British controlled Cape Colony. A number of factors influenced the Boers’ tensions with the British that spurred the Great Trek, taxation, cultural differences, and others. Out of this migration, the Boer Republics were established in the 1850s.   Not all Boers were farmers.   However, continued tensions, including the discovery of gold and diamonds in Boer territory (making the republics the richest in southern Africa), would soon spark war with their British colonial neighbors.

https://blogs.loc.gov/maps/2018/06/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-orange-free-state-and-transvaal-in-southern-africa/

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Various treaties and agreements signed by various countries…
https://opil.ouplaw.com/browse?pageSize=20&prd=MPEIPRO&sort=title&psj_0=a2a8c14f-4098-4e7f-a9c7-42688b50dc64

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British South Africa Company (BSAC, BSACO, or BSA Company), mercantile company based in London that was incorporated in October 1889 under a royal charter at the instigation of Cecil Rhodes, with the object of acquiring and exercising commercial and administrative rights in south-central Africa. The charter was initially granted for 25 years, and it was extended for a 10-year period in 1915.
Onafhanklikheid – Independence – British empire

Beplan
ABW concentration camps – Rudie Rousseau ea

British song
ABW  – The Absent-Minded Beggar


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Meer agtergrond – Background

Al is die ooreenkomste in die verlede met swart leiers gesluit, kan niemand dit verwyder nie. Leiers het met mekaar gekommunikeer en so het ons Boere leiers dit ook gedoen voor die oorlog en anneksasies. Al dink sommige liberaal verligtes of “elites” dat hulle al die magte het om dit te doen en weer af te vat, is volg gif en leuens. Die twee onafhanklike Boere republieke was deur ons voorgeslagte geskep vir ons, die nageslagte, wat oorleef het na die twee Anglo-Boere oorloë. Onafhanklikheid was erken, daarom die skakels vir handelsverdrae wat gesluit is met van die Boere republieke – nie met die Engelse koloniale magte nie, met ons voorgeslagte.

Hierdie twee Anglo-Boere oorloë wat beplan was deur die Britse ryk en haar volgers om ons voorgeslagte totaal uit te wis om minerale te bekom. Moenie dink is net ons grond wat deur hulle geannekseer is nie, al die ander volke sin is ook geneem en dit meestal vir minerale rykdom. Hulle doen dit vandag steeds en Engeland is nie alleen hierin nie (Britse statebond). Hoekom het Brittanje haar 500000 militêre weermag destyds hiernatoe gestuur, daarna seker gemaak ons vroue, kinders en ou mense kry hardepad, soms geloop of op oop treine aangery soos diere om later of van honger om te kom of geen mediese hulpmiddels. In die tyd oor die 30000 plase en huise totaal afgebrand, met voedsel op die lande.

The Zulu people … an agreement between the Zulu and the Boer (not the British or colonial governments).

Dinuzulu first appealed to the British empire for help, but had no response. He then offered rewards of land to Boer farmers of the Vryheid and Utrecht districts, to come and fight on his side and restore the Zulu Kingdom. In 1884 a group of Boer farmers from the districts of Utrecht and Vryheid undertook to help restore order, in return for land for the formation of an independent republic with access to the sea.   Led by General Louis Botha, they formed Dinuzulu’s Volunteers and after several clashes with Zibhebhu, defeated him at the Battle of Ghost Mountain (also known as the Battle of Tshaneni) on 5 June 1884.   Other agreements were also signed by Retief and other leaders.

Agreement/Accord (Zulu/Boer)

(agreement)
Vryheid – Nieuwe Republiek (Boer-Zoeloe)





Last surviving ship of a class of 6 socalled “Pantserdekschepen”, derived from the British Apollo-class. The Gelderland served as artillery training ship until 1939 when she was decommissioned on August 24 1939 and laid up. Noord Brabant commenced service as accommodation ship in 1926.

Op die Gelderland – Paul Kruger

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Zulu people – 200 years
Zulu people – 1816-2016 -200 Years




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Also after 1961 – 2021

Ingonyama Trustgebied (en andere)

Trustgebiede>Tuislande>Reservate

Tuislande en Trustgebiede in Suid-Afrika

Grond in Suid-Afrika Privaat/kommunaal

Segregasie – Apartheid

Stem uit die Graf


8 gedagtes oor “Two independent Boer republics”

  1. Baie dankie vir jul harde werk. Ek vra aseblief het jul nie meer inligting oor die 5 ander boere staate wat verdwn het.

    Die geskiedenus was beslis nie in my ou skool klaskammers.
    Jammer ek is engels die spel is moelik.
    Weereens baie dankbaar.
    Russ Weatherhead

    Like

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